Gnostic Cross


JOHN THE BAPTIST IN THE NEW LIGHT OF ANCIENT SCROLLS
- W. H. Brownlee [1]

Copyright permission for display of an abridged version of this research paper is under negotiation. The following brief passages are offered under the fair use doctrine of copyright law:

Almost every detail of the Baptist's teaching in both the Synoptic and the Fourth Gospels has points of contact with Essene belief, so that we are led not to place the Gospels in conflict and to choose between them, but to see them as fragmentary bits of information which are essentially supplemental in character....

In connecting John with the Essenes in his youth, there has been no intention of locating him specifically at Qumran, although this possibility cannot be excluded. The Manual of Discipline allows for society units of only ten men, of whom one must be a priest. John may have been connected with some such small unit residing elsewhere. As a priest he would have been qualified to teach and so perhaps he rose to leadership in his group; and when he received his call to be a prophet, his own cell group may have followed him. All this is sheer speculation about which we have no definite opinion. Of this alone we may be sure, that John was already in the Wilderness when called to become the "Voice," and that his life in the Wilderness since his early youth involved some Essene associations.


THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT AND
THE QUMRAN TEXTS
- Kurt Schubert © Eva Schubert, Vienna [10]

The key to the religious and historical understanding of broad parts of the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5-7) 5 And seeing the multitudes, he went up into a mountain: and when he was set, his disciples came unto him:
2 And he opened his mouth, and taught them, saying,
3 Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
4 Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted.
5 Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth.
6 Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled.
7 Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy.
8 Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God.
9 Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God.
10 Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
11 Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake.
12 Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven: for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you.
13 Ye are the salt of the earth: but if the salt have lost his savour, wherewith shall it be salted? it is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot of men.
14 Ye are the light of the world. A city that is set on an hill cannot be hid.
15 Neither do men light a candle, and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick; and it giveth light unto all that are in the house.
16 Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven.
17 Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.
18 For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled.
19 Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven.
20 For I say unto you, That except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven.
21 Ye have heard that it was said of them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment:
22 But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire.
23 Therefore if thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath ought against thee;
24 Leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way; first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift.
25 Agree with thine adversary quickly, whiles thou art in the way with him; lest at any time the adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison.
26 Verily I say unto thee, Thou shalt by no means come out thence, till thou hast paid the uttermost farthing.
27 Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not commit adultery:
28 But I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart.
29 And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell.
30 And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell.
31 It hath been said, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorcement:
32 But I say unto you, That whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery: and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced committeth adultery.
33 Again, ye have heard that it hath been said by them of old time, Thou shalt not forswear thyself, but shalt perform unto the Lord thine oaths:
34 But I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by heaven; for it is God's throne:
35 Nor by the earth; for it is his footstool: neither by Jerusalem; for it is the city of the great King.
36 Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because thou canst not make one hair white or black.
37 But let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil.
38 Ye have heard that it hath been said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth:
39 But I say unto you, That ye resist not evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also.
40 And if any man will sue thee at the law, and take away thy coat, let him have thy cloak also.
41 And whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with him twain.
42 Give to him that asketh thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn not thou away.
43 Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy.
44 But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you;
45 That ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven: for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust.
46 For if ye love them which love you, what reward have ye? do not even the publicans the same?
47 And if ye salute your brethren only, what do ye more than others? do not even the publicans so?
48 Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect.
6 Take heed that ye do not your alms before men, to be seen of them: otherwise ye have no reward of your Father which is in heaven.
2 Therefore when thou doest thine alms, do not sound a trumpet before thee, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may have glory of men. Verily I say unto you, They have their reward.
3 But when thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth:
4 That thine alms may be in secret: and thy Father which seeth in secret himself shall reward thee openly.
5 And when thou prayest, thou shalt not be as the hypocrites are: for they love to pray standing in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen of men. Verily I say unto you, They have their reward.
6 But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy closet, and when thou hast shut thy door, pray to thy Father which is in secret; and thy Father which seeth in secret shall reward thee openly.
7 But when ye pray, use not vain repetitions, as the heathen do: for they think that they shall be heard for their much speaking.
8 Be not ye therefore like unto them: for your Father knoweth what things ye have need of, before ye ask him.
9 After this manner therefore pray ye: Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name.
10 Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven.
11 Give us this day our daily bread.
12 And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors.
13 And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil: For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever. Amen.
14 For if ye forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you:
15 But if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses.
16 Moreover when ye fast, be not, as the hypocrites, of a sad countenance: for they disfigure their faces, that they may appear unto men to fast. Verily I say unto you, They have their reward.
17 But thou, when thou fastest, anoint thine head, and wash thy face;
18 That thou appear not unto men to fast, but unto thy Father which is in secret: and thy Father, which seeth in secret, shall reward thee openly.
19 Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth, where moth and rust doth corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal:
20 But lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, and where thieves do not break through nor steal:
21 For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also.
22 The light of the body is the eye: if therefore thine eye be single, thy whole body shall be full of light.
23 But if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness!
24 No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon.
25 Therefore I say unto you, Take no thought for your life, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink; nor yet for your body, what ye shall put on. Is not the life more than meat, and the body than raiment?
26 Behold the fowls of the air: for they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns; yet your heavenly Father feedeth them. Are ye not much better than they?
27 Which of you by taking thought can add one cubit unto his stature?
28 And why take ye thought for raiment? Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; they toil not, neither do they spin:
29 And yet I say unto you, That even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these.
30 Wherefore, if God so clothe the grass of the field, which to day is, and to morrow is cast into the oven, shall he not much more clothe you, O ye of little faith?
31 Therefore take no thought, saying, What shall we eat? or, What shall we drink? or, Wherewithal shall we be clothed?
32 (For after all these things do the Gentiles seek:) for your heavenly Father knoweth that ye have need of all these things.
33 But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto you.
34 Take therefore no thought for the morrow: for the morrow shall take thought for the things of itself. Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof.
7 Judge not, that ye be not judged.
2 For with what judgment ye judge, ye shall be judged: and with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you again.
3 And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye?
4 Or how wilt thou say to thy brother, Let me pull out the mote out of thine eye; and, behold, a beam is in thine own eye?
5 Thou hypocrite, first cast out the beam out of thine own eye; and then shalt thou see clearly to cast out the mote out of thy brother's eye.
6 Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again and rend you.
7 Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you: 8 For every one that asketh receiveth; and he that seeketh findeth; and to him that knocketh it shall be opened.
9 Or what man is there of you, whom if his son ask bread, will he give him a stone?
10 Or if he ask a fish, will he give him a serpent?
11 If ye then, being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your children, how much more shall your Father which is in heaven give good things to them that ask him?
12 Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them: for this is the law and the prophets.
13 Enter ye in at the strait gate: for wide is the gate, and broad is the way, that leadeth to destruction, and many there be which go in thereat:
14 Because strait is the gate, and narrow is the way, which leadeth unto life, and few there be that find it.
15 Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves.
16 Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles?
17 Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit.
18 A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit.
19 Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire.
20 Wherefore by their fruits ye shall know them.
21 Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven.
22 Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name? and in thy name have cast out devils? and in thy name done many wonderful works?
23 And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity.
24 Therefore whosoever heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them, I will liken him unto a wise man, which built his house upon a rock:
25 And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it fell not: for it was founded upon a rock.
26 And every one that heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them not, shall be likened unto a foolish man, which built his house upon the sand:
27 And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it fell: and great was the fall of it.
28 And it came to pass, when Jesus had ended these sayings, the people were astonished at his doctrine:
29 For he taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes.
(KJV)
seems to me to be given in Mt. 5:43f., where we read: "You have heard that it has been said, 'You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.' But I say unto you 'Love your enemies....'" Who were his listeners, who had heard that they should hate their enemies? Nowhere in the entire Jewish tradition, and still less in the Old Testament, is there any trace of a command to hate one's enemies. Probably, however, such a concept is to be found in the writings of the Essene sect, which is associated by the majority of the investigators, and with good reason, with the Essene movement.[11] There we read: "(It is the duty of members of the sect) to love everyone whom he (God) has elected, and to hate everyone whom he has rejected" (1QS 1:4); "...to hate all sons of darkness, each according to his sinfulness in the revenge of God" (1:10);... and the Levities curse all men of Belial's lot, lift their voices and speak 'Cursed art thou'" (2:4); "(The duty) of the elect of God's pleasure is to redeem the Earth and repay the wicked" (8:6f.); 'these are the rules for the wise man in these times, for his love as for his hatred, (which is) an eternal hatred toward all men of destruction in the spirit of the mystery" (9:21f.). From 1QS and 1HpHab it is evident that this hatred for enemies, in the conception of the sect, had an eschatological character; 1QS 2:5-9; 8:6f., 10f.; 9:23; but especially 1QpHqb 5:3-5 "The explanation is this, that God will not exterminate his people by the hand of the Gentiles, but that he, through the hand of his elect, will hold judgment upon all Gentiles; and when all these are chastened, all the wicked from among his own people will have to pay the price."[12]

For the Essene group, a tightening of the Mosaic Law is demonstrable. This was fostered by the expectation of a near eschatological consummation, an expectation which was also the prime agent in the formation of the sect of Qumran. Above all, the regulations for purity, sexual and otherwise, were so far expanded that the sect approached in large measure a monastic ideal, and in its order settlements actually attained it. We shall treat their sharpening of the Sabbath law later. In transforming the law of hatred for the enemy into a commandment to love him, Jesus was aiming at a very specific point of his listeners' eschatology. He wanted, to a certain degree, to soften it. It is apparently in this sense that Mt. 5:17 Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil. (KJV) has to be understood....

The assumption that Mt. 5:17 and Mt. 5:43 Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy. (KJV)are to be understood within the framework of Jesus' encounter with Essene concepts gains in credibility when we consider that the Sermon on the Mount seems in many places to refer to Essene practices, and that Jesus himself, in conversations with Pharisees, at times presumes that they are acquainted with Essene regulations. Accordingly, the dissemination of Essene thought in the time of Jesus seems to have been more extensive than was commonly supposed before the publication of the Qumran texts. It is possible that Essene or "Essenizing" conventicles existed all over Palestine. If we consider the fact that the cemetery of Khirbet Qumran alone contains more than a thousand graves, that there was an Essene Gate in Jerusalem, and that the settlement of Khirbet Qumran was probably by no means the only Essene settlement, then it is easy to visualize the widespread distribution of Essene thought in the age of Jesus.

The very first of the beatitudes (Mt. 5:3) Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. (KJV)indicated a conscious awareness of Essene thought... Much has already been written about the question of who "the poor in spirit" may have been, to whom Jesus promised nothing less than the "kingdom of Heaven"... Strack-Billerbeck express the widespread opinion that it probably means the so-called am ha-ares, the vast group of little and despised people.[13] This opinion will now have to be abandoned. The term "poor" (ptochoi) in Mt. 5:3 and Lk. 6:20 And he lifted up his eyes on his disciples, and said, Blessed be ye poor: for yours is the kingdom of God. (KJV)by no means presumes that the destitute are called blessed. The Hebrew equivalent to the Matthean addition "in spirit," had the word ruah, which does not mean only "spirit," but also "will," "agreement." Thus it is by no means sure that the usual rendition of the passage "poor in spirit" is correct. It can just as well mean "poor in will, poor in inward agreement, voluntarily poor." This seems to hit on the real sense of the passage. Jesus called those blessed to whom worldly goods were nothing. In so doing he aligned himself with one of the basic tenets of the Essenes, to which 1QS and Josephus jointly testify.[14] In 1QpHab 12:3, 6, 10, the members of the sect call themselves ebionim, "poor ones."[15] In the apocryphal hymns as well, a member of the sect describes himself as ebyon, "a poor one."[16] This name seems, then, to have been one of the numerous expressions used by the Essene Community to describe itself. Probably the Essenes took this name because they practiced full community of goods in their settlements and because contempt for money was one of their chief principles.[17] Accordingly, on the basis of the introductory words of the Sermon on the Mount alone, it does not seem improbable that Jesus' audience consisted of people who might have been familiar with Essene teaching.

In the course of the Sermon on the Mount Jesus again dealt with Essene concepts.[18] In Mt. 5:12 we find Jesus' words of comfort to his listeners: "Rejoice and be glad, for your reward is great in heaven, for so have they persecuted the prophets before you." This passage may mean that the followers of Jesus, as prophets of the kingdom of God[19] - as was earlier the case with certain similar "prophets" within the Essene Community - now had to reckon once more with severe persecution; or it may merely mean that the prophets of earlier epochs were persecuted; or it may mean both conjointly. Both interpretations can easily be understood in the framework of Essene ideas. Josephus has reported that certain of the Essenes were gifted with the gift of prophesy.[20] That the members of the sect believed that they possessed supernatural knowledge is most clearly seen in the psalm-like prayer which ends 1QS. There we read:

My eyes have gazed
on that which is eternal,
on wisdom concealed from men,
on knowledge and wise design
(hidden) from the sons of men;
on a fountain of righteousness
and on a storehouse of power,
on a spring of glory
(hidden) from the assembly of flesh.
God has given them to His chosen ones
as an everlasting possession,
and has caused them to inherit
the lot of the Holy Ones.
He has joined their assembly to the Sons of Heaven
to be a Council of the Community,
a foundation of the House of Holiness,
an eternal Plantation throughout all the ages to come.
(1QS 11.5-8 - translation by Geza Vermes)

Here it is clearly stated that the members of the sect, as the only mortals who will be saved, are the recipients of supernatural insight, gnosis. This separates them from the mass of the sons of men and gives them a share in the community of the sons of heaven.

A further corroboration for the assumption that all or at least large groups of the Essenes regarded themselves as "prophets" is to be found in the first part of the Ascension of Isaiah, the so-called Martyrdom of Isaiah. It was early recognized that this is a corpus peculiar to the Essenes.[21] Recently Dr. David Flusser has devoted himself intensely to the Martyrdom of Isaiah, and has come to suspect (and the suspicion cannot be dismissed offhand) that the name "Isaiah" in this text can only be understood as a pseudonym for the Teacher of Righteousness, familiar to us from 1HpHab and CD.[22] In the Martyrdom of Isaiah, his followers are in fact called "prophets": All put on sackcloth, all were prophets (2:10); Bechirah, however, perceived and saw the place where Isaiah was, and the prophets who were with him (3:1); to the prophets who were with him, he said before being sawn asunder...(5:13).[23] Since the arguments being brought forward by Flusser make it seem quite probable that this document belongs to the Qumran literature, we may draw the conclusion that the members of the sect, or at least certain of the members regarded themselves as prophets; no longer prophets in the sense of Old Testament prophecy, but as heralds of the kingdom of God, members of which they already are, in a certain sense, because they are no more mere "sons of men" but are already reckoned to the "sons of heaven." We hear of persecution of the members of the sect not only in the Mart. Isa. but also in 1QHab, 1QH and CD. Thus it is quite possible that listeners to the Sermon on the Mount may have understood Jesus' words in a similar sense.

If, however, Christ's listeners themselves are not meant by the prophets mentioned in Mt 5:12, also the more traditional interpretation fits well within the framework of the particular Essene tradition. The idea of persecution of prophets grew as a result of the religious persecutions of Antiochus IV and the persecution of the members of the sect by the mundane Hasmonean high priestly kings. Consequently, a martyrdom of Isaiah, of which the Old Testament knew nothing, was invented....

Herewith, it also becomes probable, in the light of the Qumran literature, that the tradition of Manasseh's persecution of Isaiah, and of his martyrdom, was originally peculiar to the Essenes. From the allusion in Mt. 5:12 it is, in my opinion, evident that Jesus was dealing with people conversant with this special tradition. Consequently, it does not seem improbable that the words, "the prophets who are/were before you" are in general to be interpreted as referring to Jesus' listeners at the Sermon on the Mount, also having reference to the Essene tradition of the persecution of important prophets.[24]

With regard to the reference to the disciples as the light of the world (Mt. 5:14-16) 14 Ye are the light of the world. A city that is set on an hill cannot be hid.
15 Neither do men light a candle, and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick; and it giveth light unto all that are in the house.
16 Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven.
(KJV)
a parallel can be found in 1QS (as well as elsewhere), where we read: "All the sons of justice tread in the ways of light" (3:20).

Parallels for Mt. 5:20 For I say unto you, That except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven. (KJV)can be found in ideas of the Qumran sect. Jesus demands that the righteousness (sedakah) of his listeners must exceed that of the scribes and Pharisees, for otherwise they will not enter the Kingdom of Heaven. Judging from the context given in Mt. 5:19, Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. (KJV) the original meaning of the passage seams to be that one must be more scrupulous in the Law, i.e., more ascetic and pious - as far as the spirit if not the letter of the Law is concerned - than the Pharisees. Opposition to the Pharisees, particularly to their interpretation of the Law, is likewise already familiar from the Qumran literature.[25]

In Mt. 5:21, Ye have heard that it was said of them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment (KJV) and Mt. 5:33 “Again you have heard that it was said to the men of old, ‘You shall not swear falsely, but shall perform to the Lord what you have sworn.’ (RSV)the speech of Jesus begins with the words: "You have heard that it was said to the men of old..." The description of past generations as "of old" or "of the beginning" archaioi) has its parallel in CD, in which we find mention of reshonism, "the earlier ones, who have gone into the covenant" (4:10); "and God was mindful of his covenant with the earlier ones" (8:4).

As a possible parallel to the words in Mt. 5:22 But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire. (KJV) about him who is angry with his brother, we take the strictly regulated community life of the Qumran sect. Consequently, the word "brother" in this passage refers not to a natural brother nor to our fellow man in general, but to a brother in the religious community. 1QS often witnesses to the love which a person must show toward his brother in this sense. As an example, let us cite 6:1: "Let no man bring something against his brother before the Many if they have not already admonished him before witnesses," cf. Mt. 18:15ff. Moreover if thy brother shall trespass against thee, go and tell him his fault between thee and him alone: if he shall hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother. (KJV)

In Mt.5:28 the provision of Ex. 20:14 against adultery is sharpened in the spirit of the Essene ideal of self-denial: "But I say unto you, that whosoever looketh upon a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart." Let us present only a few passages which help us recognize the fully complementary relationship. In 1QS 1:6, we read: "Stubbornness of a sinful heart and eyes of unchastity," and in 4:10, we hear of "a spirit of wantonness". Even clearer parallels are to be found in 1QpHab 5:7: "...those who do not lust after their eyes," and in CD, e.g., CD 3:3 "Thoughts of sinful lusts and eyes of wantonness," and CD 7:2f.: "Whoredom by taking two wives during their lifetime." The last passage is evidently directed at divorce, which was allowed under rabbinic law. Jesus too came to the same topic in connection with his presentation of an ideal of sexual morality very similar to that of the Essenes (Mt. 5:31-32ff.). 31 It hath been said, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorcement:
32 But I say unto you, That whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery: and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced committeth adultery. (KJV)
Jesus' controversy with the Pharisees, described in Mt. 19:3-9ff. 3 And Pharisees came up to him and tested him by asking, “Is it lawful to divorce one’s wife for any cause?” 4 He answered, “Have you not read that he who made them from the beginning made them male and female, 5 and said, ‘For this reason a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh’? 6 So they are no longer two but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, let not man put asunder.” 7 They said to him, “Why then did Moses command one to give a certificate of divorce, and to put her away?” 8 He said to them, “For your hardness of heart Moses allowed you to divorce your wives, but from the beginning it was not so. 9 And I say to you: whoever divorces his wife, except for unchastity, and marries another, commits adultery.” (KJV)belongs in the same context. In order to bring scriptural proof for the indissolubility of marriage, Jesus here cites Gen. 1:27, So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. (RSV)as does the author of CD, in direct connection with the quotation given above: "The basic principle of Creation is 'Male and female created he them'" (CD 7:3). In Mt. 19:8 He saith unto them, Moses because of the hardness of your hearts suffered you to put away your wives: but from the beginning it was not so. (KJV)"hardness of heart," "stubbornness" is given as the reason for the impure lust which leads to divorce. The passage from 1QS cited above offers us an interesting parallel to this (1:6).

The radical rejection of oaths in Mt. 5:33-37 Again you have heard that it was said to the men of old, ‘You shall not swear falsely, but shall perform to the Lord what you have sworn.’ 34 But I say to you, Do not swear at all, either by heaven, for it is the throne of God, 35 or by the earth, for it is his footstool, or by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King. 36 And do not swear by your head, for you cannot make one hair white or black. 37 Let what you say be simply ‘Yes’ or ‘No’; anything more than this comes from evil. (RSV) also has a parallel in Essenism. Josephus reports the Essenes' refusal to swear an oath: "Their word once given means more to them than an oath. They say that a man who is not believed unless he call upon the divinity is already condemned in advance.[26] We may also refer to CD 19:1, where we read, "It is forbidden to swear by God's name El, and by God's name Adonai."[27]

The extraordinary statements in Mt. 5:38f. (See Mt. 5:38-45) 38 “You have heard that it was said, ‘An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.’ 39 But I say to you, Do not resist one who is evil. But if any one strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also; 40 and if any one would sue you and take your coat, let him have your cloak as well; 41 and if any one forces you to go one mile, go with him two miles. 42 Give to him who begs from you, and do not refuse him who would borrow from you. Love for Enemies 43 “You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.’ 44 But I say to you, Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, 45 so that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven; for he makes his sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the just and on the unjust. (RSV)about not resisting evil, but turning the other cheek, has an interesting parallel in 1QS 10:17f.: "I will not repay a man with evil, I will follow the man of power with good, for God has judgement over all life, and he repays each according to his works."[28] In contrast to the attitude of hatred toward enemies discussed above, which had an eschatological character, here it is just a case of personal forgiveness of "men of power." Just as Jesus rejected eschatological hatred, he went further in his condemnation of hatred toward personal enemies than did the Qumran sect. I believe that it is not by chance alone that Mt. 5:39 offers a parallel only to the first part of the passage from 1QS and not to the second; for from the second part it is evident that the Essenes did not strike back because they relied on God's judgement.

Outside of Mt. 5 we find only occasional Essene parallels.[29] Mt. 6:24 4 No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon. (RSV) reminds us strongly of the sect's negative attitude toward money, which is so apparent in all its texts. Only two examples will be given. In 1QS 10:19, we read: "I desire not the gold of unrighteousness," and in CD 9:21: "They rolled in the paths of whoredom and in wicked gold." According to 1QS, too, it is impossible to serve God aright if one has desires directed toward the earning of money. Out of this conviction grew the Essene ideal of community of goods.[30]

It is not only in the Sermon on the Mount that Jesus shows himself versed in Essene rules. As a matter of fact, he also assumes his opponents among the Pharisees to be familiar with them. Mt. 12:9-14, 9 And when he was departed thence, he went into their synagogue:
10 And, behold, there was a man which had his hand withered. And they asked him, saying, Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath days? that they might accuse him.
11 And he said unto them, What man shall there be among you, that shall have one sheep, and if it fall into a pit on the sabbath day, will he not lay hold on it, and lift it out?
12 How much then is a man better than a sheep? Wherefore it is lawful to do well on the sabbath days.
13 Then saith he to the man, Stretch forth thine hand. And he stretched it forth; and it was restored whole, like as the other.
14 Then the Pharisees went out, and held a council against him, how they might destroy him.
(KJV)
Mk. 3:1-6, 1 And he entered again into the synagogue; and there was a man there which had a withered hand.
2 And they watched him, whether he would heal him on the sabbath day; that they might accuse him.
3 And he saith unto the man which had the withered hand, Stand forth.
4 And he saith unto them, Is it lawful to do good on the sabbath days, or to do evil? to save life, or to kill? But they held their peace.
5 And when he had looked round about on them with anger, being grieved for the hardness of their hearts, he saith unto the man, Stretch forth thine hand. And he stretched it out: and his hand was restored whole as the other.
6 And the Pharisees went forth, and straightway took counsel with the Herodians against him, how they might destroy him.
(KJV)
Lk. 6:6-116 And it came to pass also on another sabbath, that he entered into the synagogue and taught: and there was a man whose right hand was withered.
7 And the scribes and Pharisees watched him, whether he would heal on the sabbath day; that they might find an accusation against him.
8 But he knew their thoughts, and said to the man which had the withered hand, Rise up, and stand forth in the midst. And he arose and stood forth.
9 Then said Jesus unto them, I will ask you one thing; Is it lawful on the sabbath days to do good, or to do evil? to save life, or to destroy it?
10 And looking round about upon them all, he said unto the man, Stretch forth thy hand. And he did so: and his hand was restored whole as the other.
11 And they were filled with madness; and communed one with another what they might do to Jesus.
(KJV)
are the clearest examples. In the Matthean form of the story of the curing of a man with a withered hand on the Sabbath, Jesus reproaches the Pharisees, saying that they have no right to criticize the healing, as they all would take a sheep which had fallen into a pit on the Sabbath out of it again without scruple (Mt. 12:11). In CD 13:23f. such a procedure is actually forbidden: "If it (the animal) fall into a pit, it may not be drawn out on the Sabbath."

The Sabbath rules in the Qumran sect were markedly stricter than those of the Pharisees, as Josephus also informs us (Bell. 2, 8, 9). A provision found in CD 13:26f. indicates that Jesus' curing of the man with the withered hand was forbidden, not only by the Pharisees, but much more so by the Essenes: "A living man who falls into a water-pit or a pond on the Sabbath may not be drawn out with a ladder, nor with a rope, nor with any other device." Not even the Pharisees were this strict, for in the Mishnah Yoma 8, 6 (8:3a) we read "Every question of danger to life takes precedence over the Sabbath." The anger of the Pharisees was roused solely by the fact that the withered hand did not indicate danger of death.

Thus Jesus by no means followed Essene thought in all and every particular, but on the contrary he sometimes taught and acted in diametrical opposition to it. He is also distinguished from the Essenes by the fact that he decisively rejected all excessive features, such as eschatological hatred or the anxious pedantry in the observance of the Law (which also grew out of the eschatology of the sect). Whenever the meaning of a rule had been perverted into its opposite by the Essenes' eschatological yearning, as in the case of the tightening of the Sabbath regulations, Jesus' words and deeds provided the sharpest rejection.


A CRITICAL COMPARISON OF THE DUALISM IN
1QS 3.13-4.26 AND THE 'DUALISM' CONTAINED IN THE GOSPEL OF JOHN
- James H. Charlesworth[31]

For the wise man, that he may inform and teach all the sons of light about the history of all the sons of man, concerning all the ranks of their spirits, in accordance with thier signs, concerning their deeds and their generations, and concerning the visitation of their punishment and the moment of their reward. From the God of knowledge stems all there is and all that shall be. Before they existed he made all their plans, and when they come into being they will execute all their works in compliance with his instructions, according to his glorious design, without altering anything. In his hand are the laws of all things, and he supports them in all their needs. He created man to rule the world, and placed within him two spirits, so that he could walk with them until the moment of his visitation: they are the spirits of truth and of deceit. In the hand of the Prince of Lights is dominion over all the sons of justice; they shall walk on paths of light. And in the hand of the Angel of Darkness is total dominion of the sons of deceit; they walk on paths of darkness. Due to the Angel of Darkness, all the sons of justice stray; and all their sins, their iniquities, their failings and their mutinous deeds are under his dominion in compliance with the mysteries of God, until his moment; and all their punishments and their periods of grief are caused by the dominion of his enmity; and all the spirits of their lot cause the sons of light to fail. However the God of Israel and the angel of his truth assist all the sons of light. He created the spirits of light and of darkness and on them established all his deeds. God loved one of them for all eternal ages, and in all his deeds he takes pleasure forever; of the other one he detests his advice and hates all his paths forever [...] These are their paths in the world: to enlighten the heart of man, straighten out in front of him all the paths of justice and truth, establish in his heart respect for the precepts of God; it is a spirit of meekness, of patience, generous compassion, eternal goodness, intelligence, understanding, potent wisdom which trusts in all the deeds of God and depends on his abundant mercy; a spirit of knowledge in all the plans of action, an enthusiasm for the decrees of justice, of holy plans with firm purpose, of generous compassion with all the sons of truth, of magnificent purity which detests all unclean idols, of unpretentious behavior with moderation in everything, of prudence in respect of the truth concerning the mysteries of knowledge. These are the councils of the spirit for the sons of truth in the world. And the visitation of those who walk in it will be for healing, plentiful peace in a long life, fruitful offspring with all everlasting blessings, eternal enjoyment with endless life, and a crown of glory with majestic raiment in eternal light [...] However, to the spirit of deceit belongs greed, frailty of hand in the service of justice, irreverence, deceit, pride and haughtiness of heart, dishonesty, trickery, cruelty, much insincerity, impatience, much insanity, impudent enthusiasm, appalling acts performed in a lustful passion, filthy paths for indecent purposes, blasphemous tongue, blindness of eyes, hardness of hearing, stiffness of neck, hardness of heart in order to walk in all the paths of darkness and evil cunning. And the visitation of those who walk in it will be for a glut of punishments at the hands of all the angels of destruction, for eternal damnation, for the scorching wrath of the God of revenge, for permanent error and shame without end, with the humiliation of destruction by the fire of the dark regions. And all the ages of their generations they shall spend in bitter weeping and harsh evils in the abysses of darkness until their destruction, without there being a remnant nor survivor among them [...] In these lies the history of all men; in their (two) divisions all their armies have a share by their generations; in their paths they walk; every deed they do falls into their divisions, dependent on what might be the birthright of the man, great of small, for all eternal time. For God has sorted them into equal parts until the last day, and has put an everlasting loathing between their divisions. Deeds of deceit are an abhorrence to truth, and all the paths of truth are an abhorrence to deceit. There exists a violent conflict in respect of all his decrees, since they do not walk together. God, in the mysteries of his knowledge and in the wisdom of his glory, has determined an end to the existence of deceit, and on the occasion of his visitation he will obliterate it forever. Meanwhile, truth shall rise up forever in the world, which has been defiled in paths of wickedness during the dominion of deceit, until the time appointed for judgement. Meanwhile, God will refine with his truth all man's deeds, and will purity for himself the configuration of man, ripping out all spirit of deceit from the innermost part of his flesh, and cleansing him with the spirit of holiness from every irreverent deed. He will sprinkle over him the spirit of truth like lustral water (in order to cleanse him) from all abhorrences of deceit and from the defilement of the unclean spirit. In this way the upright will understand knowledge of the Most High, and teach the wisdom of the sons of heaven to those of perfect way.[FOOTNOTE: This passage has been modified to follow the translations of Geza Vermes and Andre Dupont-Sommer] For these are chosen by God for an everlasting covenant, and to them shall belong all the glory of Adam. There will be no more injustice, and all the deeds of trickery will be a dishonor. Until now the spirits of truth and of injustice feud in the heart of man, and they walk in wisdom or in folly. In agreement with man's birthright in justice and in truth, so he abhors injustice; and according to his share in the lot of injustice, he acts irreverently in it and so abhors the truth. For God has sorted them into equal parts until the appointed end and the new creation. He knows the result of his deeds for all times [everlas]ting, and has given them as a legacy to the sons of men so that they know good [and evil], so they decide the lot of every living being in compliance with the spirit that is in him [at the time of] the visitation.

After full account is taken of all the dissimilarities in theological perspective, we must ask whether in the realm of symbolism and mythology there exists between John and the Rule an underlying interrelationship of conceptual framework and literary expression. We may reasonably hold that the dualistic opposition between light and darkness is not something each developed independently, but rather something that betokens John's dependence on the Rule.[32]

Four literary formulae show John was probably directly influenced by the terminology and ideology in 1QS 3:13-4:26. Both these documents use the expressions "Spirit of Truth" and "Holy Spirit". Moreover, both called the righteous "sons of light". This observation is quite important precisely because the expression "sons of light" is characteristic only of Qumran and John.[33]

After listing and comparing several terms and expressions found in both terxts, Charlesworth conculdes:

It is important to note that these eleven literary expressions are not shared by John with a voluminous work, but with only one and a half columns of 1QS. Certainly, it is difficult to overlook the probability that John was directly influenced by the Rule. These similarities, however, are not close enough or numerous enough to prove that John directly copied from 1QS. But on the other hand, they are much too close to conclude that John and 1QS merely evolved out of the same milieu. John may not have copied from 1QS, but he was strongly influenced by the expressions and terminology of 1QS.[34]

 

 

THREE TEXTS COMPARED

1QS 3.13-4.26 - The Two Spirits

The Master shall instruct all the sons of light and shall teach them the nature of all the children of men according to the kind of spirit which they possess, the signs Identifying their works during their lifetime, their visitation for chastisement, and the time of their reward.
From the God of Knowledge comes all that Is and shall be. Before ever they existed He established their whole design, and when, as ordained for them, they come into being, it is in accord with His glorious design that they accomplish their task without change. The laws of all things are in His hand and He provides them with all their needs.
He has created man to govern the world, and has appointed for him two spirits in which to walk until the time of His visitation: the spirits of truth and injustice. Those born of truth spring from a fountain of light, but those born of injustice spring from a source of darkness. All the children of righteousness are ruled by the Prince of Light and walk in the ways of light, but all the children of injustice are ruled by the Angel of Darkness, and walk in the ways of darkness.
The Angel of Darkness leads all the children of righteousness astray and until his end, all their sin, iniquities, wickedness, and all their unlawful deeds are caused by his dominion in accordance with the mysteries of God. Every one of their chastisements, and every one of the seasons of their distress, shall be brought about by the rule of his persecution; for all his allotted spirits seek the overthrow of the sons of light.
But the God of Israel and His Angel of Truth will succour all the sons of light For it is He who created the spirits of Light and Darkness and founded every action upon them and established every deed [upon] their [ways]. And He loves the one IV everlastingly and delights in its works forever; but the counsel of the other He loathes and forever hates its ways.
These are their ways In the world for the enlightenment of the heart of man, and so that all the paths of true righteousness may be made straight before him, and so that the fear of the laws of God may be instilled in his heart: a spirit of humility, patience, abundant charity unending goodness, understanding, and intelligence; (a spirit of) mighty wisdom which trusts In all the deeds of God and leans on His great loving-kindness; a spirit of discernment in every purpose, of zeal for just laws, of holy intent with steadfastness of heart, of great charity  towards all the sons of truth, of admirable purity which detests all  unclean idols, of humble conduct sprung from an understanding of all  things, and of faithful concealment of the mysteries of truth. These are the counsels of the spirit to the sons of truth in this world.
And as for the visitation of all who walk in this spirit, it shall be healing, great peace in a long life, and fruitfulness, together with every everlasting blessing and eternal joy in life without end, a crown of glory and a garment of majesty in unending light.
But the ways of the spirit of falsehood are these: greed, and slackness in the search for righteousness, wickedness and lies, haughtiness and pride, falseness and deceit, cruelty and abundant evil, ill-temper and much folly and brazen insolence, abominable deeds  (committed) in a spirit of lust, and ways of lewdness in the service of uncleanness, a blaspheming tongue, blindness of eye and dullness of ear, stiffness of neck and heaviness of heart, so that man walks in all the ways of darkness and guile.
And the visitation of all who walk in this spirit shall be a multitude of plagues by the hand of all the destroying angels, everlasting damnation by the avenging wrath of the fury of God, eternal torment and endless disgrace together with shameful extinction in the fire of the dark regions. The times of all their generations shall be spent in sorrowful mourning and in bitter misery and in calamities of darkness until they are destroyed without remnant or survivor.
The nature of all the children of men is ruled by these (two spirits), and during their life all the hosts of men have a portion of their divisions and walk in (both) their ways. And the whole reward for their deeds shall be, for everlasting ages, according to whether each man's portion in their two divisions is great or small. For God has established the spirits in equal measure until the final age, and has set everlasting hatred between their divisions. Truth abhors the works of injustice, and injustice hates all the ways of truth. And their struggle is fierce in all their arguments for they do not walk together.
But in the mysteries of His understanding, and in His glorious wisdom, God has ordained an end for injustice, and at the time of the visitation He will destroy it forever. Then truth, which has wallowed in the ways of wickedness during the dominion of injustice until the appointed time of judgment, shall arise in the world forever. God will then purify every deed of man with His truth; He will refine for Himself the human frame by rooting out all spirit of injustice from the bounds of his flesh. He will cleanse him of all wicked deeds with the spirit of holiness; like purifying waters He will shed upon him the spirit of truth (to cleanse him) of all abomination and Injustice. And he shall be plunged into the spirit of purification, that he may instruct the upright in the knowledge of the Most High and teach the wisdom of the sons of heaven to the perfect of way. For God has chosen them for an everlasting Covenant, and all the glory of Adam shall be theirs. There shall be no more lies and all the works of Injustice shall be put to shame.
Until now the spirits of truth and injustice struggle in the hearts of men, and they walk in both wisdom and folly. According to his portion of truth so does a man hate injustice, and according to his inheritance in the realm of injustice so is he wicked and so hates truth. For God has established the two spirits in equal measure until the determined end, and until the Renewal, and He knows the reward of their deeds from all eternity He has allotted them to the children of men that they may know  good [and evil, and] that the destiny of all the living may be according  to the spirit within [them at the time] of the visitation.
  - Translation by Geza Vermes.

1 John 1:5-2:11

This is the message we have heard from him and proclaim to you, that God is light and in him is no darkness at all.
6 If we say we have fellowship with him while we walk in darkness, we lie and do not live according to the truth;
7 but if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus his Son cleanses us from all sin.
8 If we say we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us.
9 If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just, and will forgive our sins and cleanse us from all unrighteousness.
10 If we say we have not sinned, we make him a liar, and his word is not in us.
2:1 My little children, I am writing this to you so that you may not sin; but if any one does sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous;
2 and he is the expiation for our sins, and not for ours only but also for the sins of the whole world.
3 And by this we may be sure that we know him, if we keep his commandments.
4 He who says “I know him” but disobeys his commandments is a liar, and the truth is not in him;
5 but whoever keeps his word, in him truly love for God is perfected. By this we may be sure that we are in him:
6 he who says he abides in him ought to walk in the same way in which he walked.
7 Beloved, I am writing you no new commandment, but an old commandment which you had from the beginning; the old commandment is the word which you have heard.
8 Yet I am writing you a new commandment, which is true in him and in you, because[a] the darkness is passing away and the true light is already shining.
9 He who says he is in the light and hates his brother is in the darkness still.
10 He who loves his brother abides in the light, and in it[b] there is no cause for stumbling.
11 But he who hates his brother is in the darkness and walks in the darkness, and does not know where he is going, because the darkness has blinded his eyes.
(RSV)

NHC II 23:20 - 27:30 - The Three Spirits

"And our sister Sophia (is) she who came down in innocence in order to rectify her deficiency. Therefore she was called Life, which is the mother of the living, by the foreknowledge of the sovereignty of heaven. And through her they have tasted the perfect Knowledge. I appeared in the form of an eagle on the tree of knowledge, which is the Epinoia from the foreknowledge of the pure light, that I might teach them and awaken them out of the depth of sleep. For they were both in a fallen state, and they recognized their nakedness. The Epinoia appeared to them as a light; she awakened their thinking. "And when Yaltabaoth noticed that they withdrew from him, he cursed his earth. He found the woman as she was preparing herself for her husband. He was lord over her, though he did not know the mystery which had come to pass through the holy decree. And they were afraid to blame him. And he showed his angels his ignorance which is in him. And he cast them out of paradise and he clothed them in gloomy darkness. And the chief archon saw the virgin who stood by Adam, and that the luminous Epinoia of life had appeared in her. And Yaltabaoth was full of ignorance. And when the foreknowledge of the All noticed (it), she sent some and they snatched life out of Eve. "And the chief archon seduced her and he begot in her two sons; the first and the second (are) Eloim and Yave. Eloim has a bear-face and Yave has a cat-face. The one is righteous but the other is unrighteous. (Yave is righteous but Eloim is unrighteous.) Yave he set over the fire and the wind, and Eloim he set over the water and the earth. And these he called with the names Cain and Abel with a view to deceive. "Now up to the present day, sexual intercourse continued due to the chief archon. And he planted sexual desire in her who belongs to Adam. And he produced through intercourse the copies of the bodies, and he inspired them with his counterfeit spirit. "And the two archons he set over principalities, so that they might rule over the tomb. And when Adam recognized the likeness of his own foreknowledge, he begot the likeness of the son of man. He called him Seth, according to the way of the race in the aeons. Likewise, the mother also sent down her spirit, which is in her likeness and a copy of those who are in the pleroma, for she will prepare a dwelling place for the aeons which will come down. And he made them drink water of forgetfulness, from the chief archon, in order that they might not know from where they came. Thus, the seed remained for a while assisting (him), in order that, when the Spirit comes forth from the holy aeons, he may raise up and heal him from the deficiency, that the whole pleroma may (again) become holy and faultless." And I said to the savior, "Lord, will all the souls then be brought safely into the pure light?" He answered and said to me, "Great things have arisen in your mind, for it is difficult to explain them to others except to those who are from the immovable race. Those on whom the Spirit of life will descend and (with whom) he will be with the power, they will be saved and become perfect and be worthy of the greatness and be purified in that place from all wickedness and the involvements in evil. Then they have no other care than the incorruption alone, to which they direct their attention from here on, without anger or envy or jealousy or desire and greed of anything. They are not affected by anything except the state of being in the flesh alone, which they bear while looking expectantly for the time when they will be met by the receivers (of the body). Such then are worthy of the imperishable, eternal life and the calling. For they endure everything and bear up under everything, that they may finish the good fight and inherit eternal life." I said to him, "Lord, the souls of those who did not do these works (but) on whom the power and Spirit descended, (will they be rejected?" He answered and said to me, "If) the Spirit (descended upon them), they will in any case be saved, and they will change (for the better). For the power will descend on every man, for without it no one can stand. And after they are born, then, when the Spirit of life increases and the power comes and strengthens that soul, no one can lead it astray with works of evil. But those on whom the counterfeit spirit descends are drawn by him and they go astray." And I said, "Lord, where will the souls of these go when they have come out of their flesh?" And he smiled and said to me, "The soul in which the power will become stronger than the counterfeit spirit, is strong and it flees from evil and, through the intervention of the incorruptible one, it is saved, and it is taken up to the rest of the aeons." And I said, "Lord, those, however, who have not known to whom they belong, where will their souls be?" And he said to me, "In those, the despicable spirit has gained strength when they went astray. And he burdens the soul and draws it to the works of evil, and he casts it down into forgetfulness. And after it comes out of (the body), it is handed over to the authorities, who came into being through the archon, and they bind it with chains and cast it into prison, and consort with it until it is liberated from the forgetfulness and acquires knowledge. And if thus it becomes perfect, it is saved." And I said, "Lord, how can the soul become smaller and return into the nature of its mother or into man?" Then he rejoiced when I asked him this, and he said to me, "Truly, you are blessed, for you have understood! That soul is made to follow another one (fem.), since the Spirit of life is in it. It is saved through him. It is not again cast into another flesh." And I said, "Lord, these also who did not know, but have turned away, where will their souls go?" Then he said to me, "To that place where the angels of poverty go they will be taken, the place where there is no repentance. And they will be kept for the day on which those who have blasphemed the spirit will be tortured, and they will be punished with eternal punishment." (translation by Frederik Wisse)

 

 


THE FIRST EPISTLE OF JOHN AND QUMRAN
- Marie-Emile Boismard, O.P.[35]

[Attempts to obtain copyright permission to display of an abridged version of this essay were unsussessful. Below are the Conclusions, displayed under the fair use doctrine of copyright law, followed by a link to the complete essay hosted on an external site.]

Conclusion

The aim of this chapter has been to show how the First Epistle of John put forward a certain number of themes which are present in the Scrolls, and which directly depend on a dualistic view of the world: darkness opposes light, truth opposes iniquity. Even if he does not always take up the vocabulary of the Scrolls, the author of 1 John appears to be closely dependent on their theology.

If the reader accepts not only the relationships at the beginning of the Epistle between the terms "fellowship" (koinonia) [from 1 John], and "community (yahad) [found in the Scrolls], but also the relationship at the end of the Epistle between the admonition "to keep yourself from idols" (1 John) and "idols of his heart" (1QS), he will be tempted to think that the Epistle is addressed to a Christian community whose members to a large extent had been Essenes.

The complete essay may be found here: First John and Qumran

TRUTH: PAUL AND QUMRAN
- Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, O.P. [38]

That there are traces of Essene influence in the Pauline Corpus is now generally admitted, for there are points of contact which cannot be explained simply in terms of the Old Testament background shared by both. The precise extent and form of this influence, however, are still far from being accurately determined... The choice of 'truth' as the point of comparison studied in this essay was made for two reasons. Firstly, the intrinsic interest of the theme in the Pauline epistles - the noun aletheia occurs forty-four times, and for the most part in contexts that are theologically very significant - which does not appear to have been given the attention it deserves. Secondly, F. Notscher's summary classification of the 120 odd occurrences of the theme in the Qumran literature[39] suggested that certain aspects of the concept of truth current among the Essenes might clarify a number of Pauline expressions.[40]

I. TRUTH

The difficulties inherent in every effort to determine the influence of thought upon thought are not diminished in the present instance by the fact that the concept of truth shared by the Essenes and by Paul differs radically from that to which we are accustomed. From our point of view, 'truth' evokes correspondence or conformity. A thing is true if it exists and acts in perfect conformity with the exigencies of its own nature. A statement is true if it is an accurate representation of the facts. In this we show ourselves to be the heirs of a tradition whose origins lie in Greece.

Aletheia, according to Bultmann, [a prominent early 20th century German Lutheran theologian and New Testament scholar] 'originally signified a fact or a state of affairs, in so far as it can be seen, indicated or expressed, and is fully revealed in such seeing, indication or expression, with special reference to the fact that it might be concealed, falsified or diminished'.[41] To grasp the truth of a thing is to see it as it really is, that is, to penetrate it so fully that nothing is hidden to the mind.[42] To know truth is to exclude the possibility of having to reverse one's judgment, a danger that is all too real if one is satisfied with the phenomena. The opposite of aletheia in this sense is doxa. According to Diogenes (XI, 22), Parmenides divided philosophy into ten men kata aletheian, ten de kata doxan.

If this truth, the genuine reality of things, can be perceived by man, it can also be spoken of by him. Hence, from Homer on, 'truth' appears as the object of verbs of saying. 'To speak truth' however, is not so much to make an accurate statement, but rather so to frame one's expression such that the thing may be seen as it really is. 'Truth' as a quality of speech may be verified only by someone who has immediate experience of the situation of reality described. If, lacking this experience, he forms a judgment purely on the basis of another's report it is because he recognizes aletheia as a quality of the witness. Hence the meaning of aletheia as 'truthfulness', or more basically 'reliability, trustworthiness'. Mediate awareness of the truth of things is conditioned by the truth both of the statements about them and of him who makes them. Above all therefore, 'truth' is an intellectual category. 'Truth' is reality, seen as it actually is. It is also genuine knowledge as expressed by the mind.[43]

This conception received its greatest impetus from Plato, whose influence on his successors and in the West has been incalculable. He refused to consider as real anything subject to change. Consequently, for him 'truth' is fully realized only in the realm of the universal, the eternal, the divine. Aletheia is found only in the realm of Ideas because it alone is. (Phead. 248b). Aletheia formally is 'reality as such'; materially it is 'the eternal, the divine'. It is opposed to eidolon, which characterizes the realm of phenomena, shadows or symbols of the real.

The same point of view is to be found in the Hermetic writings, particularly in the Peri Aletheias, according to which 'truth' is only in things eternal, whereas on earth (and then not everywhere) are found only imitations of truth. In the Corpus Hermeticum, aletheia also appears as the designation of revelation. It is the teaching in which the divinity makes itself known, and as such it is not mere doctrine but a divine power (Corpus Hermeticum XII, XIII, 9). In this perspective aletheia is closely bound up with gnosis. To accept revealed truth, to know in this way, is to be already divine (Corpus Hermeticum IV, 4-5, X, 9), to be an inhabitant of the sphere of truth.

These are the ideas which unconsciously have conditioned our minds and from which we must endeavor to abstract if we are to do justice to the concept of truth elaborated in the Old Testament. Far from being atemporal or suprahistorical, 'truth' in the O.T. can be fully appreciated only within the framework of an historical event, the Covenant. 'mt [Hebrew] which is most frequently translated by aletheia [Greek] (but also by pistis, dikaiosune, etc) is not an intellectual category, but a moral one.

'Truth' characterizes not only the written form of the Covenant (the Law) but also, and especially, the fidelity of both its contracting parties. It bears a reference to activity, not to speculation. It is to be done and not merely to be contemplated. If Yahweh is said to be a 'God of Truth' (Ps 31(30):6; Jer 10:10; 2 Chron 15:3) the sacred writer's intention is not to designate him as the Supreme Reality, but to qualify him as fully committed to realizing the promises embodied in the Covenant (Mi 7:20). Having power thus to do something for his people immediately distinguishes Yahweh from all the other so-called gods, who, compared to him, are 'nothings' (Jer. 10:8). 'Truth', therefore, evokes the reality of God, just as it does in certain Greek writings, but whereas the Greek conception is static, the Hebrew is intensely dynamic, so much so that the idea of reality is embedded in the notion of reliability. Yahweh is the real, genuine, authentic God because he has exhibited himself as entirely worthy of man's confidence (Is 10:20). 'mt primarily connotes the quality of steadfastness. Applied to God's word (2 Sam 7:28, Ps 19(18):10; 111(110):7; 132(131):11), it means that it is completely trustworthy. On it man can base himself without any fear of deception (Ps 119(118) passim). This is one point where the meanings of 'mt and aletheia overlap, but with a slight difference in emphasis. For the Semite, the truth of a statement is an extension of the truth of its maker. For a Greek, the reference is primarily to the truth of the object about which the statement is made.

In the sapiential and apocalyptic tradition this aspect of truth (as a designation of revelation) undergoes a new development. In Proverbs it appears as Sophia. Wisdom says, 'my mouth proclaims truth' (8:6), and man is exhorted 'to lay hold of truth and do not sell it' (23:23)... Elsewhere, it has more explicitly the character of revealed doctrine, especially in Wis (3:9; 6:22) and in Dan (10:21; 11:2).... It should be noted that in this tradition 'truth' as a term of revelation does not mean the Law. [Rules governing Jewish conduct from Numbers and Leviticus] In Wis it means God's salvific design in general, and in Dan it designates the revelations accorded to Daniel by an angel.

'Truth' can also be a human quality. 'Men of truth' (Ex 18:21, Neh 7:2) are those whose dependability merits the trust of others, a confidence extended also to their words (Gen 42:16; 1 Kings 22:16; 17:24). In the O.T. however, 'truth' appears most frequently as a generic description of the virtues of the genuinely religious man (Jos 24: 14; 1 Sam 12:24). Loving truth (Zech 8:19), he does truth (Gen 32:11; 2 Sam 2:6; 2 Chron 31:20) and walks in the ways of truth (Tob 1:3; Wis 5:6). His prayer is of value only if it is 'in truth' (Ps 145 (144):18; cf. Jer 29:13). 'Truth' is in effect a synonym of 'righteousness', which explains the varying translations of the Septuagint.

In the concept of truth manifested in the Qumran literature we find the same three strands noted in both the Greek writings and the O.T.: it is applied to God, to revelation, and to man.

As we might expect, the truth of God plays a major role in the teaching of those who whose way of life was founded on complete confidence in God's fidelity to his promises. Despite the fact that the formula 'truth of God' occurs only three times (1 QS 3:6; 11:4; 1QM 4:6: 'God of truth' 1QH 15:25), the theme permeates the writings of the Essenes, particularly the Hymns. 'Truth' as a designation of revealed doctrine (embodying both the Law and its interpretation) is is also frequently met with, as we shall have occasion to see in some detail. The principal emphasis of the Qumran literature lies on 'truth' as a quality of moral behavior. Each and every aspect of the Essenes' activity is viewed under the optic of 'truth'.

Candidates for membership in the community are termed 'volunteers for thy (God's) truth' (1QS 1:11; 5:10). Their entrance is a conversion to truth (1QS 6:15) because they bind themselves by oath to the precepts of truth (1QS 1:15). This radical change in their lives, which contrasts sharply with those of their predecessors (1QS 1:26), has been made possible only because God has chosen them 'unto truth' (CD 13:10). It is through his gracious providence that they are 'in the lot of truth' (CD 13:12), that is, within the sphere of influence of the spirit of truth (1QS 3:24). This is the crucial point, for it is in proportion as a man is dominated by this spirit that he loves truth (1QS 4:17, 24). His mind purified by contact with truth (1QS 1.12), the sectary grows in the knowledge of truth (1QS 9:17) through instruction in the marvelous mysteries of truth (1QS 9:18). And just as truth plays a part in cleansing him of sin (1QS 3:7), so too at the end of time will it be poured out on the world and all lying abominations will come to an end (1QS 4:20-21). But until the moment of final victory the Essene must see that his hands do not slacken in the service of truth (1QpHab 7:10). Consequently, in the catalogues of the virtues which should adorn the perfect member, 'to practice truth' always holds pride of place (1QS 1:5; 5:4, 25; 8:2). God is mindful of the effort this entails and he himself directs man's steps in truth (1 QH 7:14), thus enabling him to walk 'in the ways of righteousness of truth' (1QS 4:2). To follow one's own will is tantamount to a betrayal of truth (1QS 7:18), but a man who is docile to the divine guidance serves God in truth and with an undivided heart (1QH 16:7). His situation is very different from that of those who seek God with a double heart, because they are not established in his truth (1QH 4:14). These are the 'sons of deceit' (1QS 3:20, etc.) whom he as a 'son of truth' (1QS 4:5, etc.) is obliged to detest (1QS 1:10, etc.). Only another 'son of truth' can be the object of his loving affection (1QS 4:5; 5:4, 25). His behavior towards all is governed by 'the measure of truth' (1QS 8:4) and this particularly in the matter of speech (1QS 10:23). Thus he can claim all his deeds are in God's truth (1QH 6:9). The community, whose members faithfully show forth revealed truth to the extent of being 'witnesses of truth' (1QS 8:6), thereby lays a foundation of truth (1QS 5:5) and in fact constitutes a community (1QS 2:26) or house (1QS 5:6; 8:9) of truth. In sum, to quote the striking expression of the Hymns: 'Thou art righteous and all thy elect are truth' (1QH 14:15).

As this brief summary shows, the Essene concept of truth is homogeneous with that of the O.T. and exhibits no traces of Greek influence. Many new and more vivid phrases have been coined to express it, and the theme occupies a much more central place in the teaching of the sect than it does in the O.T. A marked evolution is perceptible in the idea of 'truth' as revelation, and one is immediately struck by the emphasis on 'truth' as a quality, or rather the quality of the community and its members. Both of these developments are most probably to be explained in function of the historical circumstances which gave birth to the community. The cause of the separation of the sect from the main stream of Judaism is seen by Cross to lie in the transference of the high-priesthood from the Zadokites to the Hasmoneans.[44] This was resisted by the Teacher of Righteousness who, though he won a following among the Hasidim, was eventually forced to flee to the desert of Qumran, where he established the community of the New Covenant. 'In short', to quote Cross, 'the Essenes are a counter-Israel, organized by a counter-priesthood, the "true" Israel, led by the "legitimate" priesthood'.[45] This suggests that every mention of 'truth' has polemical overtones.[46] It was inevitable in these circumstances that at every hands turn it should be emphasized that the interpretation of the Law current in the community was 'truth', and that the pattern of behavior based on this teaching was also 'truth' - the implication being that neither the 'official' teaching nor the conduct it inspired could be anything other than 'deceit'.

A priori we should expect to find marked similarities both of thought-content and terminology between Paul's concept of 'truth' and that of the Essenes, because whatever the influence of Hellenistic thought on the Apostle, it is certain that the roots of his mind go deep onto the O.T., the soil in which 'the everlasting plant' (1QS 8.5) at Qumran flourished. Contacts are significant, therefore, only in the measure that they are on points peculiar to Paul and Qumran. This study does not pretend to be an exhaustive examination of either the Pauline or the Essene concept of 'truth'. Its much more modest object, as stated already, is to attempt to fill in the background of certain aspects of the use of aletheia in the epistles by reference to the Qumran literature. It strives to answer questions to which the Greek and O.T. sources doe not provide fully satisfactory replies. What, for instance, is the origin of Paul's description of the Law as the form of knowledge and truth? Under what influences did the concept of the Gospel as 'truth' evolve? Why is the characterization of the Christian life as 'truth' restricted to one Epistle? Do parallels exist for the expressions 'knowledge of truth' and 'foundation of truth'?

II. REVELATION

The Law

Despite the ironical flavor of the context, commentators are agreed that Paul was representing a genuine view of the Law in describing it as 'the form (morphosis) of knowledge and truth, Romans 2:20 and if you are sure that you are a guide to the blind, a light to those who are in darkness, a corrector of the foolish, a teacher of children, having in the law the embodiment of knowledge and truth — you then who teach others, will you not teach yourself? (RSV)
principally because he elsewhere describes it as good (1 Tim 1:8), holy (Rom 7:12) and spiritual (Rom 7:14) and certainly includes it under the logia tou theou of Rom 3:2....

The context makes it easy to establish the content of 'knowledge'. It is the 'knowledge of the will of God' mentioned in v. 18, that is, the terms of the Covenant as committed to writing in the Law. It is noteworthy that knowledge is here associated with the Law in a teaching context[47], for this is the context in which the two are associated in the synoptic and prophetic traditions. In Lk 11:52 Christ berates the lawyers who have hidden the key of knowledge from those who thirsted to know, an accusation that echoes Hosea's indictment of the priests: 'My people perish through lack of the Knowledge (d't). Because you have rejected the Knowledge I will expel you from my priesthood. You have forgotten the law of thy God, I will in turn forget you' (4:6). This passage well suggests the resonance that Paul's characterization of the Law as the embodiment of knowledge could have in well-informed Jewish ears. The theme is taken up again by Malachi, in a form that at first sight presents us with a closer analogy, in that it associates truth with knowledge and Law. He institutes an unfavorable comparison between the priests of his time and their father Levi: 'The law of truth (nomos aletheias) was in his mouth and no wrong was on his lips... For the lips of a priest should preserve knowledge (gnosis), and law (nomos) should they seek at his mouth. For he is the messenger of the Lord of hosts. But you have turned aside from the way, and many you have made to stumble through the Law' (2:6-8). This translation is based on the LXX, since this is the version, or a recension thereof, that Paul knew and used. Nomos here renders torah. It is not always a felicitous translation, because torah basically means 'instruction' and can be applied to the directives given by a father to his son, or by a sage to his pupil. Nomos in the centuries immediately preceding the Christian era meant 'law' in the sense we understand it today, that is, a single statuary enactment, or the legal corpus of a given community. Malachi, however, gives torah a similarly legalistic value, employing it of the precepts governing offerings elaborated in Lev 22: 18-25. It is because the priests bring 'the mangled, the lame, and the sick' (1:13) to sacrifice that they do not have the nomos aletheias. This makes it clear that the genitive 'of truth' has only the force of an adjective, distinguishing genuine instruction from the corrupt, diluted version proposed by the priests.

Thus, despite the fact that it unites the three terms Law, knowledge and truth, it is evident that this passage provides a very inadequate background for the Pauline expression. The prophet's conception of nomos (at least in this passage) is narrower than the Apostle's, who evidently is using nomos to designate the entirety of divine revelation, certainly that conserved in the books of the O.T., and very probably also the interpretation associated with these writings.[48] This is very close to the Deuteronomic conception of torah as the totality of divine revelation, understood as a rule of life, which we find reflected in Ps 119 (118). Blessed are those whose way is blameless, who walk in the law of the Lord! 2 Blessed are those who keep his testimonies, who seek him with their whole heart, 3 who also do no wrong, but walk in his ways! 4 Thou hast commanded thy precepts to be kept diligently. 5 O that my ways may be steadfast in keeping thy statutes! 6 Then I shall not be put to shame, having my eyes fixed on all thy commandments. 7 I will praise thee with an upright heart, when I learn thy righteous ordinances. 8 I will observe thy statutes; O forsake me not utterly! (RSV)
  - the Psalm continues to verse 176
This has its importance, for in this psalm we find the only other O.T. association of the Law with truth. A simple affirmation: 'thy Law is truth' (v. 142), which is reiterated in synonymous phrases: 'the word of truth' (v. 43), 'all thy commands are truth' (v. 151), 'the essence (rs) of thy word is truth' (v. 160)....

What does the psalmist mean by 'truth' here? The whole psalm is a hymn in praise of the divine Law. The center of his universe, it polarizes his entire existence. He prays for greater knowledge (vv. 27, 29, 33, etc.) that he may ever conform himself more perfectly to it (v. 44). In a world where evil ever attempts to suck him down into its mire (vv. 61, 78, 85, 95, etc.) it is the one thing on which he can rely with absolute confidence (v. 133). Opposed to unreality (v. 37), it is the supremely real. To sum up in one word all the Law meant to him he could hardly have chosen a better word than 'mt, whose basic idea is solidity, firmness; it is the quality that makes a being dependable, deserving of confidence.

In the light of all of this, it is undeniable that the O.T. does provide a background for the description of the Law as the embodiment of knowledge and truth, in the sense that all the terms have an O.T. history. It is not, however, entirely satisfactory,... As a background the O.T. is defective principally on two counts. Firstly, the association of truth as a term of revelation with the Law.... Secondly, the link between truth and knowledge and the Law. The Qumran literature throws a certain amount of light on both these points.

At the beginning of the Manual of Discipline [now known as the Community Rule] we read: 'All those who devote themselves to his truth, all their discernment and their strength and their property shall come into God's community, so that they can clarify their discernment by the truth of the ordinances of God (b'mt hwqy 'l)' (1QS 1:12). The parallel with 1:7: 'those who devote themselves to do the ordinances of God', and the prescription of 1:15: 'they must not turn aside from the ordinances of his truth', make it quite clear that it is the Law that is in question here. Conceived as an interior illumination, it is described as 'truth'. 'The Law' at Qumran meant not only the Law of Moses (CD 15:9; 16:2), but the whole of the O.T., since it seems only reasonable to associate the immense exegetical labor manifested in the peserim [exegetical works] with the emphasis laid on the study of the Law (1QS 5:2; 6:6).

'Truth', however, as a term of revelation, could also designate a reality even wider than the Law thus understood. [as applying to the entire O.T.] The candidate, on being admitted to the community, was obligated to take two oaths: (i) 'to return to the Law of Moses, according to everything which he has commanded with all heart and soul, according to everything which has been revealed from it..., and according to the multitude of the men of their covenant who devote themselves to the truth' (1QS 5:8-10); (ii) 'to separate himself from the men of deceit... for they cannot be reckoned as being in his covenant since they have not sought nor inquired after him in his statutes in order to know the hidden things' (1QS 5:10-11). These 'hidden things', as CD 3:13-15 makes clear, consisted of his holy sabbaths, his glorious feasts, his testimony of righteousness, his ways of truth, the desires of his will. They constitute 'the wondrous mysteries of truth' (1QS 8:16). Entrance into the Covenant, which involves the acceptance of all this as normative, is 'to turn to the truth' (1QS 6:15; cf. 1QH 10:30). Hence, 'truth' when not obviously restricted in meaning, should be understood as designating the entire revelation accepted by the Essenes as authoritative because divinely guaranteed. It is therefore, coextensive with the contemporary rabbinic notion of Torah.

This 'truth' was naturally the source of the special knowledge on which the Essenes prided themselves: 'Thy truth thou causest to shine forth unto endless glory and eternal peace. Praised be thou, O. Lord, for thou [unto the children of men] hast given the insight of knowledge to understand thy wonders' (1QH 11.27-28; cf CD 15.3). And again: 'I [thank thee, O Lord,] for thou hast given me insight into thy truth, and the mysteries of wonder thou hast made known to me' (1QH 7.26-27). Consequently, truth and knowledge are frequently associated, and in view of the nature of the community there is always an underlying reference to the Law. Two passages are particularly impressive. 'Thou hast made me... a foundation of truth and knowledge for the righteous of way' (1QH 2.9-10). 'Because of their quilt thou hast hidden the fountain of knowledge and the foundation of truth' (1QH 5.26). The precise meaning of both these passages will be discussed in detail further on, but even as mere formulae they provide a closer analogy to Paul's expression [Rom 2:20] than anything discoverable in the O.T.

The Gospel

Unconsciously influenced by St. John perhaps, commentators seem inclined to assume Paul used 'the truth' as a synonym for 'the gospel' right from the beginning.... In fact, a close examination of the texts would seem to indicate that the identification of the Gospel with 'the truth' was first made in Galatians, and did not win full acceptance until the Pastorals....

This conception of the Gospel as an almost autonomous salvific power is found for the first time only in later epistles (1 Cor 1:18For the preaching of the cross is to them that perish foolishness; but unto us which are saved it is the power of God. (KJV) Rom 1:16-17)For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth; to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. For therein is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith: as it is written, The just shall live by faith. (KJV). The same is true of the parallel 'faith in the gospel"(Phil 1:27).

It is in Galatians that 'truth' is first explicitly associated with the word of God. Paul's reason for refusing to circumcise Titus is 'in order that the truth of the Gospel may remain among you' (2:5), and he records with some pride his reprimand to Peter and whose with him for 'not walking according to the truth of the Gospel' (2:14). [The reference is to Paul's confrontation with Peter in Antioch over sharing a meal with uncircumcised Gentile Christians - see Gal 2:11-17But when Cephas [Peter] came to Antioch, I opposed him to his face, because he stood self-condemned; for until certain people came from James, he used to eat with the Gentiles. But after they came, he drew back and kept himself separate for fear of the circumcision faction. And the other Jews joined him in this hypocrisy, so that even Barnabas was led astray by their hypocrisy. But when I saw that they were not acting consistently with the truth of the gospel, I said to Cephas before them all, “If you, though a Jew, live like a Gentile and not like a Jew, how can you compel the Gentiles to live like Jews?”[b] Jews and Gentiles Are Saved by Faith. We ourselves are Jews by birth and not Gentile sinners; yet we know that a person is justified[c] not by the works of the law but through faith in Jesus Christ.[d] And we have come to believe in Christ Jesus, so that we might be justified by faith in Christ,[e] and not by doing the works of the law, because no one will be justified by the works of the law. (NRSV)] The value of aletheia here is much more Greek than Hebrew, for it refers to the correspondence between revelation and interpretation. Peter's interpretation was incorrect and misleading, as Paul's would have been had he consented to circumcision [of Titus, a gentile convert]. This use of 'truth' to signify the genuine content of the Gospel was obviously a big step on the way to terming the Gospel as such 'the truth'. 'You were running well. Who has hindered you in your submission to the truth?' (5:7).... No single term [truth] could better mark the contrast between the reality of the Gospel and the ineffectiveness of the Law. In itself it holds in embryo the idea that will find expression in Rom 1:16: 'the Gospel is a divine power for the salvation of all who believe.'

To us 'the truth' is so perfect a description of the word of God that we find it difficult to imagine it not passing into current use once discovered. The situation as presented by 2 Cor suggests, however, that its value was not at first fully realized. In this Epistle we find four expressions - 'the truth' (4:2), 'the word of truth' (6:6), 'the truth of Christ' (11:10), and once again 'the truth' (13:8) - all apparently synonyms for the Gospel but in point of fact endowed with very different meanings....

Only in 4:2 does 'the truth' mean the revelation entrusted to the ministers of the New Covenant. 'We have renounced the concealment prompted by shamefacedness, not acting deceitfully nor adulterating the word of God. But if our Gospel is veiled....' The force of the expression is unique and none better could be found to characterize the function of one charged with the administration of the mysteries of God (1 Cor 4:1).

By comparison with 2 Cor 4:2, the Captivity Epistles [Philippians, Colossians, Philemon, and Ephesians] represent a regression that is difficult to explain. The word of God is never simply 'the truth'. It is 'the word of the truth of the Gospel' (Col 1:5), and 'the word of the truth, the Gospel of your salvation' (Eph 1:13). It is difficult to see the utility of the explanatory phrase, unless 'the word of the truth' were not in current use as a designation of revelation....

With the Pastorals [1st & 2nd Timothy and Titus], we reach the final stage of this rather stumbling evolution. With the exception of one allusion to the Gospel as 'the word of the truth' (2 Tim 2:15), it is regularly designated 'the truth'. Apart from the expressions 'knowledge of truth' and 'foundation of truth', which will be considered in detail a little further on, we can point to 2 Tim 2:18: 'those who have erred with regard to the truth, teaching the resurrection to have already taken place'. The parallel with 1 Tim 6:20-21O Timothy, guard what has been entrusted to you. Avoid the godless chatter and contradictions of what is falsely called knowledge, for by professing it some have missed the mark as regards the faith. (RSV) shows 'truth' here to be the equivalent of 'the Faith'. These opponents are later compared to Jannes and Jambres, 'As they resisted Moses so do these resist the truth (2 Tim 3:8). The mention of Moses indicates that 'the truth' is that preached by the authorized representatives of God. 2 Tim 4:3-4 warns Timothy that 'there will come a time when people will not endure sound doctrine... and will turn away their ears from the truth'. 'Sound doctrine' is a technical term in the Pastorals for revelation in its pristine purity[49] - and its correlative is a healthy religious life. Paul is aware that Titus' subjects may be upset by Judaizers and, in consequence, warns him to rebuke them sharply 'that they may be sound in the faith and not give credence to Jewish fables and ordinances of men who turn their backs on the truth.' (Tim 1:14) The atmosphere of opposition evoked by these passages is very noticeable, and the prevalence of heterodox teaching (1 Tim 1:3; 6:3) may have been a factor, if not the chief one, motivating the characterization of the Gospel as 'truth'.

Does the Qumran literature shed any light on this evolution? A categorical affirmation or negation is impossible. It has been suggested more than once that it was at Ephesus that Paul came into contact with influences emanating from Qumran.[50] It may be pure coincidence that it was in a letter written at Ephesus (Gal) that 'truth' first appears as the synonym of revelation, the meaning it commonly has among the Essenes.

The term occurs with the same value in 2 Cor 4:1-2Therefore seeing we have this ministry, as we have received mercy, we faint not; But have renounced the hidden things of dishonesty, not walking in craftiness, nor handling the word of God deceitfully; but by manifestation of the truth commending ourselves to every man's conscience in the sight of God. (KJV) 'the manifestation of truth'. We remarked on the unique character of this expression. Thus to find a parallel in the Qumran literature would be very strong evidence for literary dependence. In Burrows' translation of the Damascus Document there is one. 'He caused them to know by his anointed his Holy Spirit and a revelation of truth (CD 2,12-13). This passage however, demands closer examination....

[After evaluating various proposed translations, O'Connor concludes:]

In view of the uncertainty it would be temerarious to draw any conclusions from a possible relationship between CD 2:12-13 and 2 Cor 4:2....

[Two later translations:

And He made known His Holy Spirit to them by the hand of his anointed ones, and He proclaimed the truth (to them).

- translation by Geza Vermes (follows the translation of Millar Burrows)
And he taught them by the hand of the anointed ones through his holy spirit and through the seers of the truth, and their names were established with precision.
- translation by Florentino Garcia Martinez (follows the translation of Yigael Yadin)]

The phrase 'word of truth', rare in the O.T.[51], is not found at all in the Qumran literature.

The sharp rise in the frequency of the usage of 'truth' unqualified [by the definite article] in the Pastorals may be due to Essene influence, but this hinges on the validity of our conclusions with regard to the expressions 'knowledge of truth' and 'foundation of truth'. But once again, is it pure coincidence that, although Timothy and Titus were in almost identical circumstances in having to contend with opposition, 'truth' appears far more frequently in the Epistles addressed to the former - in Ephesus?

(2 Thess 2:9-12 RSV):
The coming of the lawless one by the activity of Satan will be with all power and with pretended signs and wonders, and with all wicked deception for those who are to perish, because they refused to love the truth and so be saved. Therefore God sends upon them a strong delusion, to make them believe what is false, so that all may be condemned who did not believe the truth but had pleasure in unrighteousness.

(Rom 2:2 KJV):
We are sure that the judgment of God is according to truth

(Rom 2:7-8 KJV):
To them who by patient continuance in well-doing seek for glory and honour and immortality - eternal life;
But unto them that are contentious, and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness - indignation and wrath.

III THE LIFE OF FAITH

When we turn to the passages of the Epistles in which the Christian life is characterized as 'truth', we immediately become aware of a phenomenon analogous to that noted apropos of the truth of God. The idea plays a much smaller role than it does in the Qumran literature or the O.T. In the Epistles, 'truth' yields pride of place to love, which in Paul's eyes is God's chief attribute (Eph 2:4-8)But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us, 5 Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved;) 6 And hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus: 7 That in the ages to come he might shew the exceeding riches of his grace in his kindness toward us through Christ Jesus. 8 For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God (KJV) and the one which above all he desires to see mirrored in his children (Eph 5:1-2).Be ye therefore followers of God, as dear children; 2 And walk in love, as Christ also hath loved us, and hath given himself for us an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet smelling savour. (KJV) Nevertheless, the theme of truth in not entirely absent. It appears once in 1 Cor and five times in Eph.

[Skipping ahead in O'Connor's paper to consider passages in Ephesians where the Christian life is characterized as 'truth':]

One is merely a verbal quotation from Zech 8:16: 'Let each one speak truth to his neighbor' (4:25).[52] Of the four other instances, two (5:9; 6:14) occur in contexts which for other reasons are held to manifest the influence of Qumran.[53]

We turn first to Eph 5:9: 'For the fruit of light consists in all goodness (agathosune), and righteousness (dikaiosune) and truth.' Without going as far as Molin, who considers that Eph 5:3-11 3 But fornication, and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not be once named among you, as becometh saints;
4 Neither filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which are not convenient: but rather giving of thanks.
5 For this ye know, that no whoremonger, nor unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, hath any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and of God.
6 Let no man deceive you with vain words: for because of these things cometh the wrath of God upon the children of disobedience.
7 Be not ye therefore partakers with them.
8 For ye were sometimes darkness, but now are ye light in the Lord: walk as children of light:
9 (For the fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth;)
10 Proving what is acceptable unto the Lord.
11 And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather reprove them.
(KJV)
could be inserted in 1QS or CD without causing any surprise to the Essenes,[54] there can be little doubt that this passage manifests the influence of the ideas proper to the sect. It is structured on the opposition of Light and Darkness, the image used at Qumran to express precisely the same form of functional or ethical dualism; that is, man's personal commitment for or against a personal God. But apart from this basic correspondence, many parallels on particular points have been noted, especially by K. G. Kuhn in his contribution to this volume.[55] The number and character of these contacts can hardly be explained except on the hypothesis that the author of Eph had a rather detailed acquaintance with the Qumran literature. Hence the characterization of the Christian life as 'truth' draws its inspiration from the Essenes.[56] The association of righteousness and truth is frequently met with at Qumran, most often as divine attributes (1QS 4:40; 11:4,7; CD 3:15; 1QH 1:26-27; 9:31-2), but also as human virtues (1QS 4:24; 5:4; 8:2). The same can be said of the link between goodness and truth, but together these are particularly associated with God (1QH 10:16-7; 11:9). Apart from the mention of goodness, righteousness and truth in close proximity among the effects of the spirit of truth (1QS 4:2-3), there is only one passage which explicitly associates the three virtues: The Essene is required 'to depart from all evil and to cleave to all works of goodness (m'sy twb), and to do truth and righteousness and justice' (1Qs 1:5). This is far from an exact verbal parallel to Eph 5:9, but the spirit animating both passages is the same....

Ephesians 6:10-20 10 Finally, be strong in the Lord and in the strength of his might. 11 Put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil. 12 For we are not contending against flesh and blood, but against the principalities, against the powers, against the world rulers of this present darkness, against the spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places. 13 Therefore take the whole armor of God, that you may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all, to stand. 14 Stand therefore, having girded your loins with truth, and having put on the breastplate of righteousness, 15 and having shod your feet with the equipment of the gospel of peace; 16 besides all these, taking the shield of faith, with which you can quench all the flaming darts of the evil one. 17 And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God. 18 Pray at all times in the Spirit, with all prayer and supplication. To that end keep alert with all perseverance, making supplication for all the saints, 19 and also for me, that utterance may be given me in opening my mouth boldly to proclaim the mystery of the gospel, 20 for which I am an ambassador in chains; that I may declare it boldly, as I ought to speak. (RSV)

1QM 5:4-16 And all shall be armed with bronze shields, polished like a mirror. And the shield will be surrounded by a plaited border and will have a pattern engraved, a work of art in gold, silver and copper blended together, and precious stones, many-hued decorations, work of a skillful craftsman. height of the shield: tw and a half cubits; and its width, one and a half cubits. And in their hand a spear and a sword. Length of the spear: seven cubits, including the haft, and the tip of half a cubit. in the haft there will be three rings cut, with a border plaited in gold, silver and bronze intermixed, like a work of art and an engraved pattern. On both parts of the ring, the pattern will be surrounded with precious stones, many hued decorations, work of a skilled craftsman, and an ear of wheat. And the haft will be engraved between the rings in the style of an artistic column. The paint will be of shining white iron, work of a skilled craftsman, and will have an ear of wheat, of pure gold, in the center of the point, pointing towards the tip. The swords will be of purified iron, refined in a crucible and whitened like a mirror, work of a skillful craftsman; and it will have shapes of an ear of wheat of purge gold encrusted in it on both sides. And it will have two straight channels right up to the tip, two on each side. Length of the sword: one cubit and a half; and its width: 4 fingers. The scabbard will be four thumbs; it will have four palms up to the scabbard and diagonally, the scabbard from one part to the other (will be) five palms. The hilt of the sword will be of select horn, craft work, with a pattern in many colors: gold, silver and precious stones. [...] And when they stand up [...] they wall line up in seven lines, one line behind the other. (Martinez)

The Kampfsituation [life situation] of the Christian depicted in Eph 6:10-17 is fundamentally identical with that of the Essene and his community.[57] The believer must be perpetually on guard, for he is constantly exposed to the powers of evil and attacked by temptation to sin. These 'flaming darts' (v. 16) of the Evil One find a good parallel in 1QH 2:26, where the psalmist speaks of himself as encircled by enemies 'the flaming of whose spears was like a fire consuming trees'. To resist, the believer must buckle on the armour of God. The list is comprehensive: girdle, breastplate, shoes, shield, helmet, sword.

Similar catalogues are found in the O.T.: Is 11:4-5 - stick, girdle, Is 59:17 - breastplate, helmet, tunic, cloak, Wis 5:17-20 - breastplate,helmet, shield, sword. The theme, therefore, was a common one. What is surprising is that it was not exploited by the Essenes. Apart from the very material description of the weapons (shield, sword, spear) to be borne by the sons of light against the sons of darkness (1QM 5:4-14) the idea of armour does not occur in the Qumran literature either in a literal or a figurative sense.

The first step in assuming this armour is 'to gird oneself with truth' (Eph 6:14). The War Scroll (1QM) speaks of 'girding oneself' as the fundamental preparation for battle (1QM 15:14). That the girding should be effected by 'truth' manifests a literary dependence on Is 11:5b, which presents the loins of the messianic king as girt with truth (MT: 'mwnh; LXX: aletheia), but it should be remarked that Is 11:1-5 was well known at Qumran and appears as the central portion of the blessing of the Prince of the Congregation (1Q28b 5:26). How does the Christian gird himself with 'truth'?... It is achieved only by 'living the truth in love' (Eph 4:15)....

The fourth instance of 'truth' in Eph occurs in a context which, as 1 Cor 5:8, manifests the eternal Christian tension between the de facto and the de jure. The Christians have apparently carried over into their new state traits more appropriate to those who are 'strangers to the life of God' (4:18). To remedy this situation, the author of the Epistle evokes for them once again the basic obligations involved in 'learning Christ' (4:20). These are three, and each is introduced by an infinitive which has the force of an imperative. The believer must:


  
Put off the old man who is falling into corruption through the desires of deceit
2    Be renewed in the spirit of his mind
3   
 
 
Put on the new man created according to God in righteousness and holiness of the truth
Eph 4:22-24

The passage manifests a definite literary dependence on Col 3:9-10: "Strip off the old man with his practices and put on the new, being renewed to true knowledge according to the image of him who created him.' In light of the underlying allusion to Gen 1:26ff., the meaning of this latter text is clear. 'Man was created "according to the image of God" (Gen 1:26ff.), but fell through seeking knowledge of good and evil in a manner contrary to the will of God. The new man, recreated in Christ (who is himself "the image" of God, cf. Col 1:15; 2 Cor 3:18; 4:4), recovers this pristine rectitude and this time arrives at true moral knowledge (it is this that is in question in the context, cf. 1:9).

The problem then is: why should the author of Eph have adapted this passage in the way he did? Why expand the notion of 'old man' with explicit reference to 'deceit'? Why isolate renewal of knowledge instead of permitting it to remain as the primary characteristic of the new man? Why explicate the virtues of the new man? and having decided to do so, why emphasize righteousness and holiness and explicitly link them to the truth?

It is suggested here that all these questions acquire an answer if Eph 4:22-24 is understood as a reworking of Col 3:9-10 by someone steeped in the ideas of Paul who also had an extensive knowledge of the thought and vocabulary of the Essenes.... More specifically, Eph 4:22-24 would appear to be a conscious Christianization of the 'Treatise on the Two Spirits' of the Manual of Discipline [Community Rule]. Another example of the Christianization of Essenian ideas is to be found in 2 Cor 6:14-7:1 Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? and what communion hath light with darkness? 15 And what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what part hath he that believeth with an infidel? 16 And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols? for ye are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. 17 Wherefore come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing; and I will receive you. 18 And will be a Father unto you, and ye shall be my sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty. 7 Having therefore these promises, dearly beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God. (KJV) [58]

The starting point was certainly the text of Col. Its catalogue (Col 3:5-14) 5 Mortify therefore your members which are upon the earth; fornication, uncleanness, inordinate affection, evil concupiscence, and covetousness, which is idolatry:
6 For which things' sake the wrath of God cometh on the children of disobedience:
7 In the which ye also walked some time, when ye lived in them.
8 But now ye also put off all these; anger, wrath, malice, blasphemy, filthy communication out of your mouth.
9 Lie not one to another, seeing that ye have put off the old man with his deeds;
10 And have put on the new man, which is renewed in knowledge after the image of him that created him:
11 Where there is neither Greek nor Jew, circumcision nor uncircumcision, Barbarian, Scythian, bond nor free: but Christ is all, and in all.
12 Put on therefore, as the elect of God, holy and beloved, bowels of mercies, kindness, humbleness of mind, meekness, long suffering;
13 Forbearing one another, and forgiving one another, if any man have a quarrel against any: even as Christ forgave you, so also do ye.
14 And above all these things put on charity, which is the bond of perfectness. (KJV)
of the vices which converts are urged to put off with the 'old man', would have suggested to one familiar with the doctrine of the Essenes the characteristics peculiar to those under the dominion of the spirit of deceit.(1QS 4:2-14) These are their paths in the world: to enlighten the heart of man, straighten out in front of him all the paths of justice and truth, establish in his heart respect for the precepts of God; it is a spirit of meekness, of patience, generous compassion, eternal goodness, intelligence, understanding, potent wisdom which trusts in all the deeds of God, and depends and his abundant mercy; a spirit to knowledge in all the plans of action, of enthusiasm for the decrees of justice, of holy plans with firm purpose, of generous compassion with all the sons of truth, of magnificent purity which detests all unclean idols, of unpretentious behavior with moderation in everything, of prudence in respect of the truth concerning the mysteries of knowledge. These are the councils of the spirit for the sons of truth in the world. And the visitation of those who walk in it will be for healing, plentiful peace in a long life, fruitful offspring with all everlasting blessings, eternal enjoyment with endless life, and a crown of glory with majestic raiment in eternal light. [...Blank...] However, to the spirit of deceit belong greed, frailty of hands in the service of justice, irreverence, deceit, pride and haughtiness of heart, dishonesty, trickery, cruelty, much insincerity, impatience, much insanity, impudent enthusiasm, appalling acts performed in a lustful passion, filthy paths for indecent purposes, blasphemous tongue, blindness of eyes, hardness of hearing, stiffness of neck, hardness of heart in order to walk in all the paths of darkness and evil cunning. And the visitation of those who walk in it will be for a glut of punishments at the hands of all the angels of destruction, for eternal damnation, for the scorching wrath of the God of revenge, for permanent error and shame without end, with the humility of destruction by the fire of the dark regions. And all the ages of their generations they shall spend in bitter weping and harshevils in the abysses of darkness until their destruction, without there being a remnant or survivor among them.
  - translation Martinez
The lists do not match each other point for point, but that is not to be expected. The resemblance is certainly close enough to sow the germ of an idea, and to make it unnecessary to repeat the catalogue in Eph, where it is simply evoked by the mention of the first vice listed, 'inextinguishable desire (rhwb npsh)', with the indication that its source is Deceit.

The location of the old man among the 'sons of Deceit' led naturally to the identification of the new man with the 'sons of Truth', and to the attribution to him of the virtues peculiar to the latter. But only those virtues are chosen from the catalogue in 1QS 4:2-6 which are compatible with the Christian life, and which do not find a place in the list of Col 3:12....

The necessity of expanding the concept of the 'new man' in function of his virtues meant that the formulation of Col, which closely links the putting on of the new man with renewal of knowledge, had to be broken up. But this latter idea could not be omitted, primarily because it was found inextricably associated in Col with the change from the old to the new, but also because it was a cherished concept at Qumran. For the Essenes, entry into the state of salvation involved a transformation of the mind. The members of the community were essentially 'those who know (yd'ym)' (1QH 11:14), 'men of knowledge' (CD 20:4), and this understanding was given by God (1QH 11:10 and passim), through the communication of the spirit he has put in them (1QH 11:12; 13:18-19) which strengthens man's own spirit (1QH 7:6; 9:12, 32). Hence it is noted separately between the characteristics of the old man and those of the new as if forming the bridge between them....A renewal so complete would certainly imply the perfection of moral knowledge emphasized in Col, as well as the possession of the intellectual virtues appropriate to the 'sons of truth'....

IV KNOWLEDGE OF TRUTH

The theme of conversion is a common one in the Pauline corpus and is expressed by a variety of terms signifying the adhesion of the believer to the word of God. In the Pastorals an entirely new vocabulary appears: conversion is a coming to 'knowledge of truth'. God wills that man be saved by 'coming to knowledge of truth (eis epignosin aletheias)' (1 Tim 2:4)[59]. To this end Paul is appointed an apostle to lead the elect to faith and to knowledge of truth (Tim 1:1). Those who accept the preaching are those 'who have come to know the truth (epegnokosi ten aletheian) (Tim 4:1), and opposed to them are those who seek this knowledge from wrong motives and with unworthy dispositions and thus do not achieve it (2 Tim 3:7), and those who actively reject it but to whom in God's mercy it may one day be given (2 Tim 2:25)....

The only instances of the formula as such [other than in the Pastorals] are to be found in Philo (Omn. Prob. Lib., 74), and Epictetus (Diss. II, 20-21), but Bultmann correctly points out that these are parallels in form only, since they concern knowledge of reality in general.[60] Dupont can find only one instance where conversion is expressed as a turning to truth, and that in Philo ( Spec. Leg., IV, 178).[61] Hence to find the formula d't 'mt [knowledge of truth] not once but three times in the Qumran literature may be very significant.

Towards the beginning of that section of the Manual of Discipline, which Guilbert[62] with reason entitles 'Rules for the Recruitment of New Members', we find this instruction to the 'wise man': 'Let him exhort to knowledge of truth (ihwkyh d't 'mt) and the practice of justice those who choose [the] way'. He shall guide them with knowledge and instruct them in the mysteries of wonder and truth... so that they can walk flawlessly with one another in everything which has been revealed to them' (1QS 9:18-19). It was obviously just as important to the Qumran community that its new members possessed an accurate comprehension of the truth revealed to it, as it was to Paul that his converts should have a precise grasp of the revelation brought by Christ - the knowledge in both cases being expected to flower into moral behavior.

A significant point of contact between Paul and the above passage is the term 'way'. In 1QS 9.18-19 'way' occurs four times.... Here, used absolutely, 'the way' can only mean the manner proper to the sect of envisaging fidelity to the Law, and then by metonymy the sect itself (cf. 1QS 10:21).[63] A number of times in Acts 'The Way' is used in the same absolute fashion to designate the movement embodied in the primitive Church - twice in the mouth of Paul (22:4; 24:14), and always in a context involving him.[64]

[Moving ahead in O'Connor's paper to consider an occurrence of d't'mt (knowledge of truth) in a passage from the Thanksgiving Hymns - 1QH 10:29:]

...the lacunae make its interpretation difficult. The context appears to concern the order of members within the community. The hierarchy is based on knowledge, for it is according to his perfection in knowledge that one is ranked above the other (10:27-28). This is the consistent teaching of the Manual of Discipline (1QS 2:20; 5:23; 6:22; 9:14-15). Then speaking of himself in the third person the author continues: 'Thou has enlarged his inheritance through the knowledge of thy truth and according to his knowledge...' (10:29). In view of the context 'thy truth' can hardly refer to the divine fidelity, for the object of the knowledge on which perfection depends is God's revelation as manifested in the Law. Admission to the community (1QS 6:18) and promotion within its ranks (1QS 5:21-24) are conditioned by the calibre of the individual's 'knowledge and actions in Torah'. Confirmation is supplied by 10:31: 'My heart rejoiceth in thy covenant and thy truth delighteth my soul'. This verse with its evocation of two passages of Ps 119 (118), vv. 162 and 14, suggests that here as elsewhere 'truth' and 'covenant' are synonyms for the Law.[65] The context here is not one of initiation, but it does show the emphasis laid on 'knowledge of truth' as a quality of the genuine member. And in this we have a perfect analogy in 1 Tim 4:1-5, Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times, some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils; 2 Speaking lies in hypocrisy; having their conscience seared with a hot iron; 3 Forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats, which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of them which believe and know the truth. 4 For every creature of God is good, and nothing to be refused, if it be received with thanksgiving: 5 For it is sanctified by the word of God and prayer. (KJV) where it is confirmed believers who are described as 'those who know the truth'.

We now turn to the problem of the acquisition of this knowledge. Paul, on a number of occasions, touches on this problem indirectly, and it is clear that if the appropriation of revelation is to be at all possible, divine assistance is absolutely necessary. The Hymns are also quite clear on man's radical incapacity to know God or his works if left merely to his own resources, and passages such as 1QH 11.11 and 1QH 13.18-19 offer very good parallels to 1 Cor 2:12-16. Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the spirit which is of God; that we might know the things that are freely given to us of God. 13 Which things also we speak, not in the words which man's wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth; comparing spiritual things with spiritual. 14 But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned. 15 But he that is spiritual judgeth all things, yet he himself is judged of no man. 16 For who hath known the mind of the Lord, that he may instruct him? but we have the mind of Christ. (KJV) More within the scope of this paper however, is the analogy between 2 Tim 2:25-26, 25 Opponents must be gently instructed, in the hope that God will grant them repentance leading them to a knowledge of the truth, 26 and that they will come to their senses and escape from the trap of the devil, who has taken them captive to do his will. (NIV) and 1QS 4:23-24 (see 1QS 4.18-24), God, in the mysteries of his knowledge and in the wisdom of his glory, has determined an end to the existence of deceit, and on the occasion of his visitation he will obliterate it forever. Meanwhile, truth shall rise up forever in the world, which has been defiled in paths of wickedness during the dominion of deceit, until the time appointed for judgement. Meanwhile, God will refine, with his truth, all man's deeds, and will purify for himself the configuration of man, ripping out all spirit of deceit from the innermost part of his flesh, and cleansing him with the spirit of holiness from every irreverent deed. He will sprinkle over him the spirit of truth like lustral water (in order to cleanse him) from all the abhorrences of deceit, and from the defilement of the unclean spirit. In this way the upright will understand knowledge of the Most High, and the wisdom of the sons of heaven will teach those of perfect way. For these are those selected by God for an everlasting covenant, and to them shall belong all the glory of Adam. (Martinez) on the precise point of the rejection of 'knowledge of truth'. The former reads 'He (the Bishop) should correct his opponents with mildness, in case God should give them repentance unto knowledge of truth and they return to soberness from out of the snare of the devil by whom they have been taken captive to his will.' The passage from the Manual of Discipline forms part of what has been termed 'The Treatise on the Two Spirits" (1QS 3:15-4:26).From the God of knowledge stems all there is and all that shall be. Before they existed he made all their plans, and when they come into being they will execute all their works in compliance with his instructions, according to his glorious design, without altering anything. In his hand are the laws of all things, and he supports them in all their needs. He created man to rule the world, and placed within him two spirits, so that he could walk with them until the moment of his visitation: they are the spirits of truth and of deceit. In the hand of the Prince of Lights is dominion over all the sons of justice; they shall walk on paths of light. And in the hand of the Angel of Darkness is total dominion of the sons of deceit; they walk on paths of darkness. Due to the Angel of Darkness, all the sons of justice stray; and all their sins, their iniquities, their failings and their mutinous deeds are under his dominion in compliance with the mysteries of God, until his moment; and all their punishments and their periods of grief are caused by the dominion of his enmity; and all the spirits of their lot cause the sons of light to fail. However the God of Israel and the angel of his truth assist all the sons of light. He created the spirits of light and of darkness and on them established all his deeds. God loved one of them for all eternal ages, and in all his deeds he takes pleasure forever; of the other one he detests his advice and hates all his paths forever [...] These are their paths in the world: to enlighten the heart of man, straighten out in front of him all the paths of justice and truth, establish in his heart respect for the precepts of God; it is a spirit of meekness, of patience, generous compassion, eternal goodness, intelligence, understanding, potent wisdom which trusts in all the deeds of God and depends on his abundant mercy; a spirit of knowledge in all the plans of action, an enthusiasm for the decrees of justice, of holy plans with firm purpose, of generous compassion with all the sons of truth, of magnificent purity which detests all unclean idols, of unpretentious behavior with moderation in everything, of prudence in respect of the truth concerning the mysteries of knowledge. These are the councils of the spirit for the sons of truth in the world. And the visitation of those who walk in it will be for healing, plentiful peace in a long life, fruitful offspring with all everlasting blessings, eternal enjoyment with endless life, and a crown of glory with majestic raiment in eternal light [...] However, to the spirit of deceit belongs greed, frailty of hand in the service of justice, irreverence, deceit, pride and haughtiness of heart, dishonesty, trickery, cruelty, much insincerity, impatience, much insanity, impudent enthusiasm, appalling acts performed in a lustful passion, filthy paths for indecent purposes, blasphemous tongue, blindness of eyes, hardness of hearing, stiffness of neck, hardness of heart in order to walk in all the paths of darkness and evil cunning. And the visitation of those who walk in it will be for a glut of punishments at the hands of all the angels of destruction, for eternal damnation, for the scorching wrath of the God of revenge, for permanent error and shame without end, with the humiliation of destruction by the fire of the dark regions. And all the ages of their generations they shall spend in bitter weeping and harsh evils in the abysses of darkness until their destruction, without there being a remnant nor survivor among them [...] In these lies the history of all men; in their (two) divisions all their armies have a share by their generations; in their paths they walk; every deed they do falls into their divisions, dependent on what might be the birthright of the man, great of small, for all eternal time. For God has sorted them into equal parts until the last day, and has put an everlasting loathing between their divisions. Deeds of deceit are an abhorrence to truth, and all the paths of truth are an abhorrence to deceit. There exists a violent conflict in respect of all his decrees, since they do not walk together. God, in the mysteries of his knowledge and in the wisdom of his glory, has determined an end to the existence of deceit, and on the occasion of his visitation he will obliterate it forever. Meanwhile, truth shall rise up forever in the world, which has been defiled in paths of wickedness during the dominion of deceit, until the time appointed for judgement. Meanwhile, God will refine with his truth all man's deeds, and will purity for himself the configuration of man, ripping out all spirit of deceit from the innermost part of his flesh, and cleansing him with the spirit of holiness from every irreverent deed. He will sprinkle over him the spirit of truth like lustral water (in order to cleanse him) from all abhorrences of deceit and from the defilement of the unclean spirit. In this way the upright will understand knowledge of the Most High, and teach the wisdom of the sons of heaven to those of perfect way. [This passage has been modified to follow the translations of Geza Vermes and Andre Dupont-Sommer] For these are chosen by God for an everlasting covenant, and to them shall belong all the glory of Adam. There will be no more injustice, and all the deeds of trickery will be a dishonor. Until now the spirits of truth and of injustice feud in the heart of man, and they walk in wisdom or in folly. In agreement with man's birthright in justice and in truth, so he abhors injustice; and according to his share in the lot of injustice, he acts irreverently in it and so abhors the truth. For God has sorted them into equal parts until the appointed end and the new creation. He knows the result of his deeds for all times [everlas]ting, and has given them as a legacy to the sons of men so that they know good [and evil], so they decide the lot of every living being in compliance with the spirit that is in him [at the time of] the visitation. The essence of this well-constructed and apparently self-contained account of the basic beliefs of the Essenes may be summed up in three points:

i   God has ordained all that happens in the world;
ii   
 
All human behavior is determined by the influence of the spirits of truth and deceit;
iii    In the future, evil will be destroyed and truth alone will prevail.[66]

But until the End arrives, 'until now the spirits of truth and deceit struggle in the heart of man, (some) walking in wisdom and (some) in vileness. According to his share in truth and righteousness, thus a man hates deceit, and according to his assignment in the lot of deceit and ungodliness, thus does he loath truth (yt'b 'mt)'.... In the perspective of the treatise, 'truth' is known only in virtue of the influence of the spirit of truth, whose relationship to a particular individual is an effect of divine predestination (3.17-18). On the other hand, if truth is rejected, it is because the individual is under the dominion of the spirit of deceit. Elsewhere it is said that he belongs to 'the lot of Belial' (1QS 2.5) or that he is 'under the dominion of the spirits of Belial' (CD 12.2) - a term used in 2 Cor to symbolize the forces of evil (6:15). This brings us close to the 'devil' who impedes accession to 'knowledge of truth' in 2 Tim. The closeness of the analogy is reinforced when, a few verses later and speaking of this same group, Paul says: 'As Jannes and Jambres resisted Moses, so do these resist the truth' (3:8). For these two where considered by the Essenes to be a special manifestation of the spirit of deceit: 'In ancient times Moses and Aaron arose by the hand of the Prince of Lights (=the spirit of truth, 1QS 3.20) and Belial raised Jannes and his brother by his evil device' (CD 5.18).

In spite of, or rather because of, the similarity in 'mentality', it is important to note the difference in 'spirit' between Paul and the Essenes on this point of the rejection of truth. The doctrine of predestination in the 'Treatise on the Two Spirits' leaves no room for human responsibility.[67] Man's belonging to the domain of the spirit of deceit (or of truth) depends on a choice that is God's and not in any sense his. For Paul, on the contrary, salvation is always contingent on a personal decision....

Thus, if the Pastorals show the influence of Essene terminology, Paul was certainly conscious of the limitations of the doctrines it expressed. 'Knowledge of truth' for the sectaries, as for the Apostle, evokes the idea of salvation. But for the former this knowledge was limited to their own little group in a very jealous fashion.[68] It is possible that 1 Tim 2:1-4 constitutes a conscious reaction to this conception, so diametrically opposed to the mind of Christ (Mt 5:43-45; 18:21-35, etc.). 'First of all, I urge that petitions, prayers,... be made on behalf of all men.... This is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Saviour, will wills all men to be saved and to come to knowledge of truth.'

[- Nevertheless, passages supporting a doctrine of predestination can be found in the Pauline Corpus:

Romans 8:28-30 (NIV): And we know that in all things God works for the good of those who love him, who have been called according to his purpose. For those God foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers and sisters. And those he predestined, he also called; those he called, he also justified; those he justified, he also glorified.

Romans 9:10-13(NIV): Rebekah’s children were conceived at the same time by our father Isaac. Yet, before the twins were born or had done anything good or bad—in order that God’s purpose in election might stand: not by works but by him who calls—she was told, “The older will serve the younger.” Just as it is written: “Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated.

Rom 11:5-7 (NIV): So too, at the present time there is a remnant chosen by grace. And if by grace, then it cannot be based on works; if it were, grace would no longer be grace. What then? What the people of Israel sought so earnestly they did not obtain. The elect among them did, but the others were hardened,

Ephesians 1:5, 11-12 (KJV): Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will,... In whom also we have obtained an inheritance, being predestinated according to the purpose of him who worketh all things after the counsel of his own will: That we should be to the praise of his glory, who first trusted in Christ.

2 Thess 2:13 (RSV): But we are bound to give thanks to God always for you, brethren beloved by the Lord, because God chose you from the beginning to be saved, through sanctification by the Spirit and belief in the truth.]

V FOUNDATION OF TRUTH

Another point of contact between the Pastorals (I & II Timothy and Titus) and Qumran is to be found in the phrase 'foundation of the truth'. We read in 1 Tim 3: 14-15: 'I write these things hoping to come to you very soon, that you may know - in case I delay - how you ought to act in the house of God, which is the Church of the living God, pillar and foundation of the truth.... The symbolic force of 'pillar' is identical with that of 'foundation': solidity, stability, utter dependability (cf. Ps 75(74):4; Job 38:4-6). What rests on them is absolutely secure. The reality beneath these symbols, therefore, is the mainstay of revealed truth....

The Qumran documents make a real contribution to the understanding of the background of the formula 'foundation of the truth'. It is a curious coincidence that the image of a foundation is applied therein both to a collectivity [the Qumran community] and to an individual [the Teacher] - the two senses postulated for 1 Tim 3:15. We shall examine each of the relevant passages in turn, and it is possible that a decisive argument may emerge to settle the doubt concerning the interpretation of this latter text.

Community: Hans Conzelmann,[69] a protagonist of the ecclesial interpretation of 1 Tim 3:15, was, to my knowledge, the first to point out that this passage has a parallel in the Manual of Discipline: "They shall lay a foundation of truth (mwsd 'mt) for Israel, for the community of an eternal covenant' (1QS 5:5). The term mwsd is not very common in the O.T. Vocalized as mosad, it evokes the solidity and permanence of the foundations of the mountains (Dt 32:22; Ps 18(17):8), of the earth (Is 24:18, Prov 8:29), and of the heavens themselves (2 Sam 22:8). The vocalization mosad is much more significant, for it evokes the foundation of the Temple (2 Chron 8:16), and especially the Isaian prophecy concerning the posing of the foundation-stone of the New Jerusalem (Isaiah 28:16-17).Thus saith the Lord God, Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, a tried stone, a precious corner stone, a sure foundation: he that believeth shall not make haste. 17 Judgment also will I lay to the line, and righteousness to the plummet: and the hail shall sweep away the refuge of lies, and the waters shall overflow the hiding place. (KJV) This is indeed the perspective of 1QS 5:5. The Essenes believed they were living in the end times. The members of the community withdrew from the 'assembly of deceit' (1QS 5:1-2) precisely in order to lay a foundation of truth for Israel. 'Israel' here does not have the limited signification it has in 1QS 5:6 and 8:5, 9, where it designates the lay members of the community as opposed to its priests (Aaron). It means the new Israel of the future age, which will be the community bound in a covenant that will never need to be renewed. This eschatological community has begun to be realized by the establishment of the community at Qumran. Its foundation has thereby been lain. The context suggests that 'truth' here is not to be understood as an allusion to revelation but as a characterization of the quality of the foundation. The Essenes lay the foundation of the New Israel by the perfection of their obedience to the Law. They are a 'community in the Law' (5:2), that is, entirely devoted to its study. Their observance is characterized above all by 'truth' (5:3), no one 'walking in the stubbornness of his heart in order to go astray after his heart.' (5:4) It is precisely as the concrete embodiment of perfect fidelity that the Essenes are a 'foundation of truth' (cf. 8:4 - see 1QS 8:1-16)....In the Community council (there shall be) twelve men and three priests, perfect in everything that has ben revealed about all the law, to impart truth, justice, judgement, compassionate love and humbleness to his fellow, to preserve faithfulness on earth with firm purpose and repentant spirit, in order to atone for sin, doing justice and undergoing trials in order to walk with everyone in the measure of truth and the regulation of time. When these things exist in Israel, the Community council shall be founded on truth, Blank like an everlasting plantation, a holy house for Israel and the foundation of the holy of holies for Aaron, true witnesses for the judgement and chosen by the will of (God) to atone for the earth and to render the wicked their retribution. Blank It (the Community) will be the tested rampart, the precious cornerstone that does not Blank /whose foundations do not/ shake or tremble in their place. Blank It will be the most holy dwelling for Aaron, with total knowledge of the covenant of justice, and in order to offer a pleasant /aroma/; and it will be a house of perfection and truth in Israel {...} in order to establish a covenant in compliance with the everlasting decrees. /And these will be accepted in order to atone for the Earth and to decide the judgement of the wicked {...} and there will be no iniquity/. When these have been established in the foundation of the Community for two full years /in/ perfect behavior /they will be segregated/ (like) holy ones in the midst of the council of the men of the Community. And every matter hidden from Israel but which has been found out by the Interpreter, he should not keep hidden from them for fear of a spirit of desertion. And when these exist /as a community/ in Israel /in compliance with these arrangements/ they are to be segregated from within the dwelling of the men of sin, to walk to the desert in order to open there His path. As it is written: In the desert, prepare the way of ****, straighten in the steppe a roadway for our God. This is the study of the law, which he commanded through the hand of Moses, in order to act in compliance with all that has been revealed from age to age, and according to what the prophets have revealed through his holy spirit. (Martinez)

Individual: A change of vocabulary marks the appearance of this second aspect of the theme.[70] We find yswd 'foundation' used to characterize both the responsible members of the community,[71] and its fundamental doctrines,[72] but apart from a rather indirect link established by 1QS 7:20-21,The person whose spirit turns aside from the foundation of the Community to betray the truth and walk in the stubbornness of his heart, if he comes back, shall be punished for two years; during the first year he shall not approach the pure food of the Many. (Martinez) this term is never associated with 'truth'. Hence we leave these passages out of consideration, some of which, moreover, are of rather doubtful interpretation. A more fruitful area of research is suggested by a remark in the Konkordanz zu den Qumrantexten (p. 90, n. 2), pointing out that in the Qumran documents there is frequently no difference in meaning between yswd and swd.

This is very clear in 1QH 6:26 and 7:9. 'Thou layest swd upon the rock and cross-beams to the right measure and a plumb-line [....] to [....] chosen stone for a strong building which shall not be moved.' (6:26). "Thou makest me as a strong tower, as a high wall, and on the rock thou establishest my building and eternal foundations ('wly 'wlm) for my swd, and all my walls as a tried wall which is not shaken' (7:9). Neither of the biblical meanings of swd - (i) confidential talk, a secret; (ii) a group of intimates (1QS 8:5) - makes any sense in either of these passages. The whole context demands that it be understood as 'foundation', a meaning well attested in later Hebrew.

This does not mean, however, that in every instance swd 'mt may be translated as 'foundation of truth'. The meaning 'secret' is also attested for swd,[73] and in a number of passages where it is combined with 'mt this gives an eminently satisfactory sense. Thus 1QH 10:4; 11:4, 9, 16. Brown in his study on 'mystery' at Qumran has felt that this meaning is not adequate in other cases, and suggests that in 1QH 2:10; 5:9, 26 swd 'mt 'seems to mean a (secret?) source of truth'.[74] This is a precious intuition whose value will soon become apparent, but in each of these instances a good case can be made for the meaning 'foundation of truth'.

Before embarking on the examination of each of these passages in turn, an important preliminary observation must be made. In his very detailed study on the Teacher of Righteousness, Gert Jeremias has shown: (i) that the Hymns from Qumran as a whole are not a literary unity, and (ii) that a certain number of hymns are so closely linked in thought and vocabulary that they must be considered as a literary totem. These are: 2:1-19; 2:31-39; 3:1-18; 4:5-5:4; 5:5-19; 5:20-7:5; 7:6-25; 8:4-40. [Unfortunately,the hymn numbering in modern translations does not match the numbering system current in the 1950s and 60s.] After a minute analysis of each of these hymns, he concludes ('mit Sicherheit') that in each the same well-known personality speaks, vis. the Teacher of Righteousness.[75] We accept these conclusions as a point de depart. It is extremely significant that all the instances in which swd 'mt certainly means 'secret of truth' fall outside this group. This, to say the least, makes their value for the interpretation of swd 'mt within the group problematical. It is noteworthy, too, that both certain instances of swd = foundation occur within the group.

(a) 


'Thou hast made me a reproach and a derision to the false, But a foundation (swd) of truth and knowledge for the righteous of way' (1QH 2:9-10)

The use of 'Way" as a technical term for the sect has already been noted. The absence of the article is not to be pressed, for 'the righteous' can only designate the members of the community (cf. 1QS 4:22).... 'Foundation' is the only meaning of swd that makes really good sense here. It is the translation adopted by Holm-Neilsen, Dupont-Sommer and Bardtke, among others....

Truth' here must mean revelation.... line 13 clarifies the meaning of 'foundation of truth and knowledge': 'Thou hast made me a banner unto the chosen of righteousness and an interpreter of knowledge (mlys d't) concerning the mysteries (rzy) of wonder to test [the men] of truth' This text shows that the Teacher has been granted an exceptional grasp of the salvific doctrines proper to the sect, not for himself, but in order to mediate this truth to others.[76] According to lines 17-18, adversaries seek the life of him (the Teacher) 'within whose heart thou hast set understanding to open the fountain of knowledge to all who understand'. His proclamation of revelation is the test (2.8; 7.12). By rejecting it men manifest themselves as 'sons of deceit' (line 16). By accepting it they show themselves to be 'men of truth', and their knowledge has that of the Teacher for foundation. The Teacher's role, however, extends beyond the communication of knowledge. He also fulfils a function with regard to its object (7.26-27), truth. In virtue of a special disposition of divine providence he is its 'foundation', that is to say, its unshakable support (7.8-9), the guardian of its integrity. The Teacher, then, does much more than embody truth - which any of his genuine disciples could be said to do (14.15).

(b) 



'And concerning the secret (rz) which thou hast hidden in me, they go around with slander to the children of destruction... and because of their guilt, thou hast hidden a fountain of knowledge and a foundation (swd) of truth.' (1QH 5:25-26)

The content of the 'secret' is in part clarified by line 11: "Thou hast hidden thy Law [within me].' - Compare 'Thy Law, which thou hast impressed upon my heart' (4:10). But it almost certainly englobes also the inspired interpretation of the Law proper to the sect. In any case we have here an allusion to the Teacher's special knowledge. Revelation is put in his heart, not that it may not be seen, but that it may be at the very centre of his being, the norm and inspiration of every thought and deed. It is this which enables him to be for the community 'a fountain of knowledge and a foundation (swd) of truth'.... With respect to his followers he is the mediator of revelation and thus a source of knowledge. Compare: 'Thou, O my God, hast put in my mouth as showers of early spring rain for all [....] and a spring of living waters' (8.16). With respect to truth itself, he is its mainstay and its guardian.

(c) 



'Thou hast set me in a place of exile... and there thou hast established me, and the foundation of truth (swd 'mt) thou hast consolidated in my heart, and [thence] (comes) the covenant to them that seek it.' (1QH 5.8-9)

Were this the only instance of swd 'mt one would automatically translate it by 'secret of truth', especially in view of line 11, which alludes to the Law being hidden within the Teacher. Against this, however, is the meaning of the formula in the two passages just discussed, and which bracket this one. Moreover, the verb 'ms 'to strengthen, consolidate, fortify' is much more appropriate with 'foundation' than with 'secret'. Mowinckel, who prefers the meaning 'foundation', thus interprets the phrase: "[It] obviously means that God strengthened the very foundation of truth, of the right religion and the right relation to him, in his heart. He became again a true and steadfast believer and "servant" (line 15) of God, surrendering and overcoming "the [evil] desires of his nature".[77] The accent is on 'foundation' rather than on 'truth'. This foundation is the Teacher's attitude towards the Revealer and his word. On the concrete level where God acts through human instruments, the Teacher's union with God is the support and guarantee of the revelation confided to him (line 11). This accords perfectly with the two phrases which immediately precede and follow.... As its sure foundation the Teacher embodies truth. Those who oppose him and refuse to submit to his teaching merit God's wrath, but those who hear his words receive the covenant (4:24; 34-35) and are thereby delivered from judgement (1QpHab 8:1-3).  but the just shall live by faith (Hab 2:4)
Interpreted, this concerns all those who observe the Law in the House of Judah, whom God will delver from Judgement because of their suffering and because of their faith in the Teacher of Righteousness. (Vermes)

The harmony of thought and vocabulary between these passages is remarkable, and fully bears out Jeremias' conclusions regarding the literary unity of the hymns to which they pertain. It is in virtue of his special relationship to God, which involves the possession of a unique knowledge (cf. Eph 3:2-5), If ye have heard of the dispensation of the grace of God which is given me to you-ward: 3 How that by revelation he made known unto me the mystery; (as I wrote afore in few words, 4 Whereby, when ye read, ye may understand my knowledge in the mystery of Christ) 5 Which in other ages was not made known unto the sons of men, as it is now revealed unto his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit;
(KJV)
that the Teacher is a 'foundation of truth'. And humanly speaking, the revelation needed just such a reliable support and guarantee, because the atmosphere of these passages is heavy with hostility. Another passage shows clearly that the Teacher was persecuted not so much for what he was but for what he taught: 'They have devised against me to exchange thy Law which thou hast impressed upon my heart for hypocrisy unto thy people, and they withhold the drink of knowledge from them that thirst, and for their thirst they give them vinegar to drink (4.10-11). The Teacher's every effort is directed to preserving the purity of the doctrine entrusted to him for others. His authentic teaching is the touchstone on which humanity is tested. Those who seek a truth of their own devising (4.14-15) are repelled by it. But those who seek God's truth find in him a fountain of pure knowledge, and to drink from this source is to receive the Covenant.

The analogies between this conception and 1 Tim 3:14-15,I write these things hoping to come to you very soon, that you may know - in case I delay - how you ought to act in the house of God, which is the Church of the living God, pillar and foundation of the truth. (Jerome Murphy-O'Connor,OP) interpreted as referring to Timothy are remarkably close. In both, an individual is the 'foundation of truth' precisely because his role as a mediator of revelation demands that he exercise ceaseless vigilance to prevent its contamination by heterodox teaching. The concrete situation is the same for both, because this danger is not hypothetical but an actual fact.

What contribution does Qumran make to the understanding of 1 Tim 3:15?... It may be that Paul consciously draws on Qumran terminology to characterize the head of the Church in Ephesus. As Eph shows, Paul was definitely in contact with someone who knew Essenian teaching thoroughly. Timothy belonged to the same circle. What could be more natural therefore, that Paul, in writing to him, should employ a formula whose overtones were clear to both? It emphasizes that Timothy must be in the face of opposition, but it also offsets this hostility by its implication of divine support and assistance. To underline the difference between the mission of the Teacher and that of Timothy, Paul would have added the definite article before 'truth'. Both their functions concerned 'truth', but that handled by Timothy (2 Tim 2:15)Do your best to present yourself to God as one approved, a workman who has no need to be ashamed, rightly handling the word of truth. (RSV) is 'the truth', for revelation is no longer the Law, but Christ 'the great mystery of piety'.

CONCLUSIONS

It is noteworthy that the divisions imposed on our study by the material investigated coincide with the great divisions of the Pauline corpus. The idea of the Law as the form of knowledge and truth is found only in Romans. Except for one aside in 1 Cor, the conception of the Christian life as truth is in evidence only in Eph. The expressions 'knowledge of truth' and 'foundation of truth' do not occur outside of the Pastorals [I & II Timothy and Titus]. The theme of truth-revelation runs through all groups of Epistles; one each in Gal and 2 Cor, once each in Col and Eph (in the form 'word of truth'), but frequently in the Pastorals. In other words, the most characteristic aspects of the Pauline concepts of truth are almost exclusively associated with definite blocks of Epistles, and not scattered throughout the corpus. This poses a dilemma with regard to the passages studied. Did Paul emphasize one or another facet of his idea of truth at different times due to the influence of Qumran? Or were those who penned epistles (under his aegis, but with varying degrees of freedom) influenced by different applications of the Essenian concept? The later hypothesis is certainly to be preferred in the case of Eph, and one may wonder if it is not also the one best adapted to explain the occurrences of truth in the Pastorals. In both cases, an idea found in Epistles whose authenticity in the fullest sense is unquestioned, is applied in a unique way. Beyond this we cannot go, for the precise point studied in this essay is too narrow a base to allow any sweeping conclusions.


'MYSTERY' IN THE THEOLOGY OF SAINT PAUL AND ITS PARALLELS AT QUMRAN
- Joseph Coppens [78]

The presence and significance of the term 'mystery' in the theology of St Paul has been pondered over for a long time by exegetes and historians of comparative religion,...

Today, excellent interpreters of the thought of the Apostle have come to the following conclusions in regard to the Pauline 'mystery':[79]

1
 
 
 
When St Paul introduced the terms 'revelation', 'mystery', 'knowledge' and 'perfection' into his vocabulary, he linked them closely together. In so doing he elaborated a network of theological concepts which recalls that of the Qumran writers.
2
 
 
 
In its strict and religious sense, the term 'mystery' appears principally in the Captivity Epistles [Philippians, Colossians, Philemon, and Ephesians], but this meaning is anticipated at least twice, namely in 1 Cor 2:7-10.We speak wisdom among them that are perfect: yet not the wisdom of this world, nor of the princes of this world, that come to nought:
But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, even the hidden wisdom, which God ordained before the world unto our glory:
Which none of the princes of this world knew: for had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.
But as it is written, Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him.
But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God. (KJV)
and in Romans 16:17-18; 25-27.I appeal to you, brethren, to take note of those who create dissensions and difficulties, in opposition to the doctrine which you have been taught; avoid them. 18 For such persons do not serve our Lord Christ, but their own appetites, and by fair and flattering words they deceive the hearts of the simple-minded....
25 Now to him who is able to strengthen you according to my gospel and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery which was kept secret for long ages 26 but is now disclosed and through the prophetic writings is made known to all nations, according to the command of the eternal God, to bring about the obedience of faith— 27 to the only wise God be glory for evermore through Jesus Christ! Amen. (RSV)
3
 
 
In its strict and religious sense, the term 'mystery' is generally used in the singular. The plural is rare. It is found in 1 Cor 4:1;This is how one should regard us, as servants of Christ and stewards of the mysteries of God. (RSV) 13:2;And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not charity, I am nothing. (KJV) 14:2,Make love your aim, and earnestly desire the spiritual gifts, especially that you may prophesy. 2 For one who speaks in a tongue speaks not to men but to God; for no one understands him, but he utters mysteries in the Spirit. 3 On the other hand, he who prophesies speaks to men for their upbuilding and encouragement and consolation. 4 He who speaks in a tongue edifies himself, but he who prophesies edifies the church. (RSV) and outside the Pauline epistles in Mt 13:11It is given unto you to know the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it is not given. (KJV) and Lk 8:10.Unto you it is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God: but to others in parables; that seeing they might not see, and hearing they might not understand. (KJV)
4
 
 
 
 
 
In its strict and religious sense, the term 'mystery' designates the secret plan of universal salvation (mystery at the level of divine being), which was realized in Christ (mystery at the concrete level of salvation history), and which is offered to all humanity through the gospel and its reception in faith (mystery at the level of human collaboration in the perfect realization of the divine mystery).
5
 
 
The three levels at which the mystery is realized are translated by the expressions 'mystery of God', 'mystery of Christ', 'mystery of the Gospel, of faith, of religion'.
6




 
In the description of the mystery, the Apostle emphasizes the calling of the Gentiles. One gets the impression that in the early letters, this aspect embodies the character of the 'mystery' in a special way. Later, in the Captivity Epistles, the mystery becomes principally the mysterious being of Christ, the universal significance of this being, and the mystical participation in this being, the fullness of divine grace.
7
 
 
Through knowledge of the mystery, the Christian attains wisdom, and the power and glory of God. He thus in a way penetrates into the 'mystery of God'.
8 The knowledge of the mystery is reserved to perfect Christians.
9
 
 
The Christian becomes perfect from the time that he is capable of receiving the spiritual instruction in virtue of which he can experience the plenitude of the Christian life.
10
 
The believer realizes this plenitude of Christian experience and life through an efficacious participation in the plenitude of Christ.
11
 
 
Receptive attention to spiritual instruction, the Christian life fully realized, efficacious participation in Christ's plenitude; all of this can be obtained only through the gift of the Spirit.
12

Compared to the doctrine of the 'great' Pauline epistles, that of the Captivity Epistles is notably richer:
(a)
 
 
 
The mysteries of the Christian economy are in some way concentrated in a single one: the mystery of Christ glimpsed in his being, his epiphany, in the riches this epiphany pours out and the paths it opens up to God.
(b)
 
 
 
The mystery is no longer primarily the ultimate salvation of the Jews, nor the calling of the Gentiles, nor the miracle of the parousia, nor the glory of the final beatification in God; rather, all of that is recapitulated in Christ.
(c)
 
 
The mystery is no longer reserved to a category of the faithful, distinct from the mass, or at least distinct from the uninitiated; all Christians are called to share in its revelation.
(d) 
 
 
The knowledge of the mystery becomes the ultimate end of the Christian life, whereas in 1 Cor 13:13And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three; but the greatest of these is charity. (KJV) knowledge must give way to charity....

What have the Qumran documents to offer us against this synthesis?...

At Qumran, the mystery, or rather, the mysteries, have their centre in God. They constitute an ensemble of knowledge, of decrees, and of the riches of grace which are beyond human understanding. No one has access to them except through revelation and divine generosity. More than once the divine mysteries are termed marvellous. But God in some way communicates some of his mysteries to the works he has accomplished, and to those he will accomplish in the course of time.

This leads us to a brief consideration of the cosmic mysteries. They include, among other things, the mysterious laws which direct the course of the stars and determine the calendar (1QH 1:11, 13); the mysteries of the abyss (1Q27 f. 13:3); the mysterious domain of a new Paradise (1QH 8:6); the mystery of the measure and harmony at the base of poetry and music (1QH 1:29); and the mystery of human language (1QH 1:28). Hymn 1 suggests the inclusion of many other realities in the cosmic mysteries, such as the destinies of the world (1QH 1:24), even though the term 'mystery' is not used.

The mysteries of God penetrate the domain of history too, insofar as history is entirely subject to the decrees of the divine will (1QH f. 3:7; cf. for example 1QS 3:15-4:1;From the God of knowledge stems all there is and all that shall be. Before they existed he made all their plans, and when they come into being they will execute all their works in compliance with his instructions, according to his glorious design, without altering anything. In his hand are the laws of all things, and he supports them in all their needs. He created man to rule the world, and placed within him two spirits, so that he could walk with them until the moment of his visitation: they are the spirits of truth and of deceit. In the hand of the Prince of Lights is dominion over all the sons of justice; they shall walk on paths of light. And in the hand of the Angel of Darkness is total dominion of the sons of deceit; they walk on paths of darkness. Due to the Angel of Darkness, all the sons of justice stray; and all their sins, their iniquities, their failings and their mutinous deeds are under his dominion in compliance with the mysteries of God, until his moment; and all their punishments and their periods of grief are caused by the dominion of his enmity; and all the spirits of their lot cause the sons of light to fail. However the God of Israel and the angel of his truth assist all the sons of light. He created the spirits of light and of darkness and on them established all his deeds. God loved one of them for all eternal ages, and in all his deeds he takes pleasure forever; of the other one he detests his advice and hates all his paths forever. (Martinez) 1QS 4:18;God, in the mysteries of his knowledge and in the wisdom of his glory, has determined an end to the existence of deceit, and on the occasion of his visitation he will obliterate it forever. (Martinez) 1QH 7:14, 26). Some of the marvellous and mysterious interventions of Providence (historical mysteries) concern the fate of individuals. God grants man his pardon; mystery of mercy (CD 3:17-18);But they had defiled themselves with human sin and unclean paths,
and they had said 'for this is ours.' But God, in his wonderful mysteries, atoned for their failings and pardoned their sins. (Martinez)
[80] and he raises him to himself in promising him an angelic state (1QH 1:21-22; 1QM 14:10-16;You have protected the soul of your redeemed ones
[when the m]en of his empire [were scheming],
You have raised the fallen with your strength,
but those who arose, you cut down to humiliate them [...]
For their heros there is no saviour,
there is no refuge for their swift ones.
To their most esteemed
you return scorn.
All their useless Blank existence
[you have turned into] nothing.
We, your holy people,
will praise your name
for the deeds of your truth,
for your mighty deeds
we will extol Blank [your spl]endour
at [every] moment
and at the times indicated
by your eternal edicts,
at the onset of day and at night
at the fall of evening and at dawn.
For great is the p[lan of you]r glory
and your marvellous mysteries on high;
in order to raise from the dust for yourself
and subdue gods. Blank
Rise up, rise up, oh God of gods,
and be exalted with power
(Martinez)
1QS 11:3-8;As for me,
my justification is with God.
In His hand are the perfection of my way
and the uprightness of my heart.
He will wipe out my transgression
through his righteousness.

For my light has sprung
from the source of His knowledge;
my eyes have beheld His marvellous deeds,
and the light of my heart, the mystery to come.
He that is everlasting
is the support of my right hand;
the way of my steps is over stout rock
which nothing will shake;
for the rock of my steps is the truth of God
and His might is the support of my right hand.

From the source of His righteousness
is my justification,
and from His marvellous mysteries
is the light in my heart.
My eyes have gazed on that which is eternal,
on wisdom concealed from men;
on a fountain of righteousness
and on a storehouse of power,
on a spring of glory
(hidden) from the assembly of flesh.
God has given them to his chosen ones
as an everlasting possession,
and has caused them to inherit
the lot of the Holy Ones.
He has joined their assembly
to the Sons of Heaven
to be a Council of the Community,
a foundation of the Building of Holiness,
an eternal Plantation throughout all ages to come.
(Vermes)
1QS 11:15-21);Blessed be you, my God,
who opens the heart of your servant to knowledge!
Establish all his deeds in justice,
and raise up the son of your handmaid
to be everlasting in your presence,
as you have cared for the chosen ones of mankind.
For beyond you there is no perfect path
and without your will, nothing comes to be.
You have taught all knowledge
and all that exists is so by your will.
Beyond you there is no one
to oppose your council,
to understand one of your holy thoughts,
to gaze into the abyss of your mysteries,
to fathom all of your marvels
or the strength of your might.
Who can tolerate your glory?
What indeed, is a man,
among all your marvellous deeds?
And what shall one born of woman be considered
in your presence?
(Martinez)
mystery of supernatural exaltation. Other interventions concern both individuals and the Israelite nation as a whole, for instance the trials which the mysterious wisdom of God inflicts on men (1QH 9:23; 1QM 14:11, 16; 17:9). Others, finally, concern the final end of the community of the elect: God will destroy iniquity (1QM 3:9; 14:11; 1QS 3:23; 4:18; 1Q27 1:6-7), he will save the elect (1QpHab 7:1-8:1),...and God told Habakkuk to write down that which would happen to the final generation, but He did not make known to him when time would come to an end. And as for that which He said, That he who reads may read it speedily,
Interpreted, this concerns the Teacher of Righteousness, to whom God made known all the mysteries of the words of His servants the Prophets.

For there shall be yet another vision concerning the appointed time. It shall tell of the end and shall not lie (ii, 3a).
Interpreted, this means that the final age shall be prolonged, and shall exceed all that the prophets have said; for the mysteries of God are astounding.

If it tarries, wait for it, for it shall surely come and shall not be late (ii, 3b).
Interpreted, this concerns the men of truth who keep the Law, whose hands shall not slacken in the service of truth when the final age is prolonged. For all the ages of God reach their appointed end as He determines for them in the mysteries of His wisdom.

Behold, [his soul] is puffed up and is not upright (ii, 4a).
Interpreted, this means that [the wicked] shall double their guilt upon themselves [and it shall not be forgiven] when they are judged...

[But the righteous shall live by his faith] (ii, 4b).
Interpreted, this concerns all those who observe the Law in the House of Judah, whom God will deliver from the House of Judgement because of their suffering and because of their faith in the Teacher of Righteousness.
(Geza Vermes)
and assure them of the kingdom (1Q27 1:5). This would seem to be God's final victory, to which the 'future mystery' is directed. This 'future mystery' is evoked in an important context which is, unfortunately, mutilated; 1Q26 f.1:1, 4;1Q27 1:3, 4; cf. 1QS 11:3-4, 9.

One of the mysteries realized by God in the course of history is that of the Teacher of Righteousness himself, because among his fellow citizens he appeared as a bearer of a great mystery, which he was charged by God to communicate to his disciples: 1QH 5:25; 8:11 (bis).

After the mysteries of the divine being and those of the divine works accomplished in the cosmos and in history, there occurs a single reference to a scriptural mystery, that is a hidden mystery in the Scriptures and destined to be unveiled in the last days: 1QpHab 7:5.

In opposition to the divine mysteries, Qumran recognizes also the mysteries of sin or of iniquity: 1QM 3:2-4, 6-9; On the trumpets calling the congregation they shall write, The Called of God.
On the trumpets calling the chiefs they shall write, The Princes of God
On the trumpets calling the soldiers they shall write, The Army of God...
On the trumpets for battle formations they shall write, Formations of the divisions of God for the Vengeance of His wrath on the Sons of Darkness.
On the trumpets summoning the foot-soldiers to advance towards the enemy formations when the gates of war are opened they shall write, Reminder of Vengeance in God's appointed Time.
On the trumpets of massacre they shall write, The mighty Hand of God in War shall cause all the ungodly slain to fall.
On the trumpets of ambush they shall write the Mysteries of God shall undo Wickedness
On the trumpets of pursuit they shall write, God has smitten all the Sons of Darkness; His Fury shall not end until they are utterly consumed. (Vermes)
14:7-10;For the perfect ones of the path
all the wicked nations shall be destroyed
None of their heroes
will remain standing.
Only we, the rem[nant of your people].
Blessed be your name, God of mercies,
guardian of the covenant of our fathers.
All in our generations
you have caused your favours to fall on the rem]nant of your people
during the empire of Belial.
In all the mysteries of his enmity,
they have not separated from your covenant.
You have excluded from us
his spirits of destruction.
(Martinez)
16:11-12;And when Satan girds himself to come to the aid of the sons of darkness, and when the slain among the foot-soldiers begin to fall by the mysteries of God, and when all the men appointed for battle are put to ordeal by them, the Priests shall sound the trumpets of Summons for another formation of the reserve to advance into battle; and they shall take up their stand between the formations. (Vermes) 1QS 3:23; 4:18; 1QH 5:36; f. 50:5; 1Q27 1:2. These mysteries, of course, depend ultimately on the providential order. Nevertheless, since God is not their direct agent, it is fitting to give them separate mention.

The nature and origin of the mysteries explain that God alone is, in the last instance, the one who reveals them (1QS 9:16-21;He shall not rebuke the men of the Pit nor dispute with them.
He shall conceal the teaching of the Law from men of falsehood, but shall impart true knowledge and righteous judgement to those who have chosen the Way. He shall guide them all in knowledge according to the spirit of each and according to the rule of the age, and shall thus instruct them in the mysteries of marvellous truth that in the midst of the men of the Community they may walk perfectly together in all that has been revealed to them. This is the time for the preparation of the way into the wilderness, and he shall teach them to do all that is required at that time, and to separate from all those who have not turned aside from all ungodliness.
These are the rules of conduct for the Master in those times with respect to his loving and hating.
Everlasting hatred in a spirit of secrecy for the men of perdition!
(Vermes)
11:19). It is through his 'spirit' that God communicates this knowledge: 1QS 4:3-8; It is a spirit of meekness, of patience, generous compassion, eternal goodness, intelligence, understanding, potent wisdom which trusts in all the deeds of God and depends on his abundant mercy; a spirit of knowledge in all the plans of action, an enthusiasm for the decrees of justice, of holy plans with firm purpose, of generous compassion with all the sons of truth, of magnificent purity which detests all unclean idols, of unpretentious behavior with moderation in everything, of prudence in respect of the truth concerning the mysteries of knowledge. These are the councils of the spirit for the sons of truth in the world. And the visitation of those who walk in it will be for healing, plentiful peace in a long life, fruitful offspring with all everlasting blessings, eternal enjoyment with endless life, and a crown of glory with majestic raiment in eternal light. (Martinez)1QH 12:11; 13:19. In various places the Qumran psalmist chants the mystery of his marvellous participation in the divine knowledge which has been accorded him: 1QH 7:26-33; 8:4-40; 11:9-10, 15-18; 12:11-13; 19-20; 13:14-15.

In the light of what we have gleaned from Qumran, we turn again to the Pauline epistles. We will examine them in the chronological order generally given in the introductions to the New Testament. Through a review of the entire Pauline corpus we may attain a better understanding of the evolution of Pauline thought and vocabulary, and incidentally, throw some light on the authenticity of the Captivity Epistles [Philippians, Colossians, Philemon, and Ephesians].

We will examine first the three passages where St Paul uses the term 'mystery' in the plural, namely 1 Cor 14:2; 13:2; and 4:1:

1 Corinthians 14:1-4 (RSV):

Make love your aim, and earnestly desire the spiritual gifts, especially that you may prophesy. For one who speaks in a tongue speaks not to men but to God; for no one understands him, but he utters mysteries in the Spirit. On the other hand, he who prophesies speaks to men for their upbuilding and encouragement and consolation. He who speaks in a tongue edifies himself, but he who prophesies edifies the church.

1 Corinthians 13:2 (KJV):

And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not charity, I am nothing.

1 Corinthians 4:1 (RSV):

This is how one should regard us, as servants of Christ and stewards of the mysteries of God.

The opinion that in Corinthians the term gnosis does not belong to the vocabulary of 'revelation and of mystery', and must be explained as peculiar to Corinthian language,[81] does not seem justified. It appears to be contradicted by such texts as 1 Cor 14:6Now, brethren, if I come to you speaking in tongues, how shall I benefit you unless I bring you some revelation or knowledge or prophecy or teaching? (RSV) and 13:2 which link 'gnosis' and 'revelation', and by passages which establish a parallelism between the two char isms: 2 Cor 11:6;12:1-4.I must boast; there is nothing to be gained by it, but I will go on to visions and revelations of the Lord. I know a man in Christ who fourteen years ago was caught up to the third heaven—whether in the body or out of the body I do not know, God knows. And I know that this man was caught up into Paradise — whether in the body or out of the body I do not know, God knows — and he heard things that cannot be told, which man may not utter. (RSV)[82] Moreover, the Qumran texts now give us further reason for questioning the validity of this opinion, since the expression 'the knowledge of mysteries' is common in them. The terms 'knowledge', 'to know' on the one hand, and 'mystery' on the other, are frequently associated (cf. 1QH 2:13; 12:13).

The third text, 1 Cor 4:1, is easy to translate, but the concrete object aimed at is not easily defined. Paul defines here the apostolic ministry in a formula which became classic...

A Qumran text has been related to this passage: 1Q36 f.16. It refers to the 'nsy msmrt lrzykh, that is, according to Barthelemy-Milik, 'the men (who mount) the guard of your mysteries'. The context of this curious expression is not intact. It is impossible to determine to what, exactly, it refers. The term msmrt is frequent in the Old Testament and its meanings are numerous. The Septuagint version translates it in various ways. Here it is perhaps best translated, 'the men appointed to the service of the divine mysteries'. This brings us quite close to the full significance of the Pauline passage.

A few conclusions can be drawn already from the three texts studied so far. First, it appears that St Paul is concerned with several mysteries, and that, consequently, his horizon is not limited to a single mystery, 'the great mystery', with which, some authors suggest, he was concerned from the beginning of his career. Secondly, it is evident that parallels to the Qumran literature are not wanting. Leaving aside he obscure expression in 1Q36 f. 16, we can point to the relations between the terms 'gnosis' and 'mystery', the reference to the charism of prophecy as the primary source of the knowledge of the mysteries, and finally the expression 'mysteries of God', which has an exact parallel in the Qumran texts.

We must now take up the particular mysteries mentioned in the Pauline Epistles.

The first in chronological order is found in the Second Epistle to the Thessalonians. The context describes the second coming of Christ. The Apostle speaks of two precursory signs of the return: the first is the mystery of iniquity, which St. Paul sees already at work, and the second consists of the 'man of sin', the 'son of iniquity', the Antichrist, whose defeat will coincide with the parousia of the Savior. St. Paul speaks in the same context of a person and of an event or force which is holding back, as was commonly believed, the coming of the Antichrist....

2 Thessalonians 2:1-12 (RSV):

Now concerning the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ and our assembling to meet him, we beg you, brethren, 2 not to be quickly shaken in mind or excited, either by spirit or by word, or by letter purporting to be from us, to the effect that the day of the Lord has come. 3 Let no one deceive you in any way; for that day will not come, unless the rebellion comes first, and the man of lawlessness[a] is revealed, the son of perdition, 4 who opposes and exalts himself against every so-called god or object of worship, so that he takes his seat in the temple of God, proclaiming himself to be God. 5 Do you not remember that when I was still with you I told you this? 6 And you know what is restraining him now so that he may be revealed in his time. 7 For the mystery of lawlessness is already at work; only he who now restrains it will do so until he is out of the way. 8 And then the lawless one will be revealed, and the Lord Jesus will slay him with the breath of his mouth and destroy him by his appearing and his coming. 9 The coming of the lawless one by the activity of Satan will be with all power and with pretended signs and wonders, 10 and with all wicked deception for those who are to perish, because they refused to love the truth and so be saved. 11 Therefore God sends upon them a strong delusion, to make them believe what is false, 12 so that all may be condemned who did not believe the truth but had pleasure in unrighteousness.

Qumran literature offers numerous partial parallels to our text, and what is more, places us in a situation closely resembling that described by the Apostle. God's final victory will be preceded by a time of iniquity during which men of sin and perdition will exercise wide-spread domination. But we must not lose sight of the differences; the texts do not speak, as does St Paul, of a personage who will be the ultimate incarnation of impiety, nor do they evoke the Messiah as the adversary and the conqueror of the man of sin.

The Epistle to the Romans furnishes two other passages where the term 'mystery' is used in the singular. As in the second Epistle to the Thessalonians, the mystery is considered in an historical perspective.

In Rom 11:25 Paul forsees an historical development of three phases in the diffusion of the gospel; the temporary rejection of Is real, the conversion of the Gentiles, and the final salvation of the Chosen People: 'Lest you be wise in your own conceits, I want you to understand this mystery, brethren: a hardening has come upon part of Israel, until the full number of the gentiles come in, and so all Is real will be saved.' The mystery, then, is not the calling of the Gentiles. Cerfaux observes correctly, 'The conversion of the Gentiles is only accessory.'[83] Paul stops at the destiny of Israel, and his concern is to show the continuity of the divine work.

Qumran offers no parallel to this vision of the mystery of salvation: temporary rejection of a part of Israel and final salvation of the entire people. In fact, we find the opposite: salvation will belong immediately to Israel, but will be reserved finally to that portion of the elect represented by the community of the Desert of Judah. On the other hand, 4 Esd 10:38-58 seems to describe an expectation similar to that of the Apostle to the Gentiles.

The construction of the second passage, Rom 16:26 is more complicated. It is not surprising that in the course of time copyists felt obliged to complete and clarify it. The 'mystery is still on the historical plane, to be sure, but it takes on wider dimensions. 'The revelation of the mystery' appears to be identified with the kerygma of the 'gospel', of which Christ is the principal, central, and formal object. The 'mystery' is said to have been 'enveloped in silence' in the past, then 'fortold through the scriptures', and then announced to all the Gentiles....

Romans 16:17-18, 25-27 (RSV):

17 I appeal to you, brethren, to take note of those who create dissensions and difficulties, in opposition to the doctrine which you have been taught; avoid them. 18 For such persons do not serve our Lord Christ, but their own appetites, and by fair and flattering words they deceive the hearts of the simple-minded....

25 Now to him who is able to strengthen you according to my gospel and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery which was kept secret for long ages 26 but is now disclosed and through the prophetic writings is made known to all nations, according to the command of the eternal God, to bring about the obedience of faith — 27 to the only wise God be glory for evermore through Jesus Christ! Amen.

Qumran offers no parallel here, except to the degree that in both the Epistle to the Romans and the Qumran texts, the new revelation brought to the faithful is called a 'mystery', or includes 'mysteries'. Nevertheless, the properties of the mystery, its hidden character and its presence in scripture, are reflected quite faithfully in the Qumran writings. As we move forward in the interpretation of particular mysteries, the conclusion stated above is confirmed: the Apostle does not reserve the term 'mystery' to a single event or to a single reality which, by reason of its capital importance in the economy of salvation, appropriates the expression to itself.

In the First Epistle to the Corinthians a new 'mystery' emerges which once more has a particular fact in view, a fact different from all of those which up to this point have, in the eyes of the Apostle, merited the name mystery. In 1 Cor 15:51 Paul, writing of the end of time, terms 'mystery' the corporal metamorphosis willed by Providence for all men before their entrance into eternal life. Some have to pass through the process of resurrection; others, on the contrary, 'the living', will suffer the eschatological transformation of their earthly bodies without passing through death.

1 Corinthians 15:1-8, 12-14, 20-26, 42-58 (RSV):

1 Now I would remind you, brethren, in what terms I preached to you the gospel, which you received, in which you stand, 2 by which you are saved, if you hold it fast—unless you believed in vain. 3 For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received, that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the scriptures, 4 that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the scriptures, 5 and that he appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. 6 Then he appeared to more than five hundred brethren at one time, most of whom are still alive, though some have fallen asleep. 7 Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles. 8 Last of all, as to one untimely born, he appeared also to me....

12 Now if Christ is preached as raised from the dead, how can some of you say that there is no resurrection of the dead? 13 But if there is no resurrection of the dead, then Christ has not been raised; 14 if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is in vain and your faith is in vain....

20 But in fact Christ has been raised from the dead, the first fruits of those who have fallen asleep. 21 For as by a man came death, by a man has come also the resurrection of the dead. 22 For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ shall all be made alive. 23 But each in his own order: Christ the first fruits, then at his coming those who belong to Christ. 24 Then comes the end, when he delivers the kingdom to God the Father after destroying every rule and every authority and power. 25 For he must reign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. 26 The last enemy to be destroyed is death....

42 So is it with the resurrection of the dead. What is sown is perishable, what is raised is imperishable. 43 It is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness, it is raised in power. 44 It is sown a physical body, it is raised a spiritual body. If there is a physical body, there is also a spiritual body. 45 Thus it is written, “The first man Adam became a living being”; the last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 46 But it is not the spiritual which is first but the physical, and then the spiritual. 47 The first man was from the earth, a man of dust; the second man is from heaven. 48 As was the man of dust, so are those who are of the dust; and as is the man of heaven, so are those who are of heaven. 49 Just as we have borne the image of the man of dust, we shall[b] also bear the image of the man of heaven. 50 I tell you this, brethren: flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable 51 Lo! I tell you a mystery. We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed, 52 in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we shall be changed. 53 For this perishable nature must put on the imperishable, and this mortal nature must put on immortality. 54 When the perishable puts on the imperishable, and the mortal puts on immortality, then shall come to pass the saying that is written:

“Death is swallowed up in victory.”
55 “O death, where is thy victory?
O death, where is thy sting?”
56 The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law. 57 But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.

58 Therefore, my beloved brethren, be steadfast, immovable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, knowing that in the Lord your labor is not in vain.

Nothing at Qumran parallels this. Besides, it is well-known that the Dead Sea documents give us only a sketchy picture of individual eschatology as it will be worked out according to the eternal designs of God.

If Cor 15:51 poses no problems, it is quite otherwise with 1 Cor 2:7. Here, for the first time, we begin to wonder whether Paul, seeing more and more deeply into the 'mystery', is not placing Christ himself at the centre of it. The text, unfortunately, is not easy to interpret....

1 Corinthians 2: 7-10 (KJV):

We speak wisdom among them that are perfect: yet not the wisdom of this world, nor of the princes of this world, that come to nought:
But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, even the hidden wisdom, which God ordained before the world unto our glory:
Which none of the princes of this world knew: for had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.
But as it is written, Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him.
But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God.

But what is the object of the mystery?...

We should mention here the properties that Paul attributes to the mystery in this Epistle. We learn that it is 'hidden', that it is accessible only to those who have received the gift of the Spirit, that it gives the fortunate possessors of that gift the power to search the depths of God, and finally that it grants them, so to speak, a glimpse of the celestial glory reserved by God for his elect. Almost all these characteristics - we will come back to this later in reference to certain texts of Colossians and Ephesians - are found in the Qumran passages treating of the mysteries. At Qumran too, these mysteries are hidden truths or realities, revealed to those who receive the gift of the Spirit. These revelations enable those receiving them to know the immense riches of divine knowledge and power, and to glimpse the celestial glory awaiting the just in the world to come.

The conclusion to be drawn from this study of the oldest Pauline Epistles is the one already reached in two other contexts. First, the Apostle does not restrict the term 'mystery' to a single reality, or a single event in the economy of salvation, Second, even among the particular mysteries mentioned by the Apostle, the call of the Gentiles does not get special attention. It is mentioned briefly, one might say in passing, principally perhaps in so far sa it is the object of what we have termed a 'scriptural mystery'....

- Moving ahead in Coppens' paper to consider the Captivity Epistles (Colossians and Ephesians):

Ephesians 1 (KJV):

1 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, to the saints which are at Ephesus, and to the faithful in Christ Jesus:
2 Grace be to you, and peace, from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.
3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ:
4 According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love:
5 Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will,
6 To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved.
7 In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace;
8 Wherein he hath abounded toward us in all wisdom and prudence;
9 Having made known unto us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he hath purposed in himself:
10 That in the dispensation of the fullness of times he might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth; even in him:
11 In whom also we have obtained an inheritance, being predestinated according to the purpose of him who worketh all things after the counsel of his own will:
12 That we should be to the praise of his glory, who first trusted in Christ.
13 In whom ye also trusted, after that ye heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation: in whom also after that ye believed, ye were sealed with that holy Spirit of promise,
14 Which is the earnest of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession, unto the praise of his glory.
15 Wherefore I also, after I heard of your faith in the Lord Jesus, and love unto all the saints,
16 Cease not to give thanks for you, making mention of you in my prayers;
17 That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you the spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of him:
18 The eyes of your understanding being enlightened; that ye may know what is the hope of his calling, and what the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints,
19 And what is the exceeding greatness of his power to us-ward who believe, according to the working of his mighty power,
20 Which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly places,
21 Far above all principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come:
22 And hath put all things under his feet, and gave him to be the head over all things to the church,
23 Which is his body, the fullness of him that filleth all in all.

Pauline thought has developed considerably. From now on, the Apostle will speak of a single mystery, and this mystery will be in the foreground of his thought. From now on, too, the term and notion of mystery will serve as a framework for the speculations, and the attempt at synthesis made by the Apostle, in order to present a general view of the Christian economy. And finally, from now on Christ is in the foreground of the mystery, and on the verge of absorbing it completely.

St Paul does not forget however, that the mystery of Christ has its source in God. Eph 1:9 affirms it categorically. Nevertheless, the mystery of the divine plan appears now as incarnated in Christ (v. 10), to the point of being identified with him....

In the Captivity Epistles the mystery is Christ in all his dimensions, in so far as in him the divine mystery is realized. Christ then is the mystery of God made visible, as the Church in its turn will render the mystery of Christ visible.

In his lengthy explanations of the mystery of Christ, pleroma of the divinity, and of the mystery of the Church, pleroma of Christ, St Paul underlines certain notions for the first time, or at least more forcefully than ever before. He links the notion of heritage, for instance, to the 'mystery' (Eph 3:6; 1QS 11:5-8); and the word 'glory' appears several times (Col 1:15-19; Eph 1:12, 14; 1QH 13:13-14). Moreover, the knowledge of the mystery is expressed by epignosis (Col 1:9; 2:2; 3:10) and by sunesis (Eph 3:4), terms which are used for the first time in a 'mystery' context. Finally, the idea of totality, which is strongly emphasized, makes its first appearance in this connection. All, indeed, must be recapitulated in Christ.

It is precisely the notion of totality that leads St Paul to teach the subjection of angelic forces to the power of Christ (Eph 1:20-21; Col 1:16; 2:10, 15). Here, again, we have a new aspect thrown into sharp relief in the Captivity Epistles. We are tempted to conclude that the author wished to combat dangerously widespread errors concerning the angel (Cor 1:16; 2:10, 15, 18; Eph 1:20-21); now, it is well known that at Qumran there was much speculation about the angels, as well as discussions about feasts and calendars (cf. Col 2:16)....

Colossians 2:16-18 (KJV)
Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the sabbath days: Which are a shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ. Let no man beguile you of your reward in a voluntary humility and worshipping of angels, intruding into those things which he hath not seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshly mind.

The mystery of the call of the Gentiles is emphasized more in Ephesians, but it is not absent from Col:26-27, and while it is true that Colossians develops at length the mystical union of the faithful with Christ, the mystery and riches of this union are also contemplated in Ephesians, where the doctrine of the pleroma has a very personal ring (cf. Eph 3:19; 4:13).

We are now in a position to appreciate what Qumran can offer in the way of parallels in order to throw light on the 'great mystery' spoken of in the Captivity Epistles. It is hardly necessary to say that nothing, absolutely nothing, at Qumran evokes the mystery of the glorious Christ, nor the mystery of Christ which we have called mystical. On the other hand, we must not minimize the significance of the two passages where the psalmist of Qumran, to be identified, possibly, with the Teacher of Righteousness, is described as the bearer, the incarnation, so to speak, of a mystery hidden and sealed in his person.[84]...

Qumran offers few or no points of comparison with the Captivity Epistles' doctrine concerning the concentration of the mystery in the person of Christ, the pleroma of the divinity, but the passages wherein St Paul describes the content and unfathomable riches of the mystery evoke numerous Qumran pericopes. Indeed, nowhere in the Pauline literature do we find such striking resemblances to the Qumran vocabulary as in the Captivity Epistles. Some of these resemblances, which have already been noted by others,[85] may be pointed out here:

mysteries of the divine will: Eph 1:9; 1QH f. 3:7;
wisdom and knowledge present in the mystery: Col 2:2-3; that their hearts may be encouraged as they are knit together in love, to have all the riches of assured understanding and the knowledge of God’s mystery, of Christ, 3 in whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge. (RSV)1QH 12:13; 13:13-14;
knowledge and wisdom present in the mystery: Col 1:6; 1QH 2: 9-10;
divine glory present in the mystery: Eph 1:2, 14; 1QS 11:5-8; 1QH 13:13-14;
marvels of the mysteries; Col 2:2; 1QH 2:13; 4:27-28; 7:26-27; 11:9-10; 12:12;
knowledge of the mysteries: Col 2:2; 1QH 2:13; 4:27-28; 7:27; 11:10; 12:12;
penetration of the meaning of the mysteries: Eph 3:1-6; For this reason I, Paul, a prisoner for Christ Jesus on behalf of you Gentiles— 2 assuming that you have heard of the stewardship of God’s grace that was given to me for you, 3 how the mystery was made known to me by revelation, as I have written briefly. 4 When you read this you can perceive my insight into the mystery of Christ, 5 which was not made known to the sons of men in other generations as it has now been revealed to his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit; 6 that is, how the Gentiles are fellow heirs, members of the same body, and partakers of the promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel. (RSV)1QH 12:20; 11: 9-10; 1QS 11:17-19; For beyond you there is no perfect path
and without your will, nothing comes to be.
You have taught all knowledge
and all that exists is so by your will.
Beyond you there is no one
to oppose your council,
to understand one of your holy thoughts,
to gaze into the abyss of your mysteries,
to fathom all of your marvels
or the strength of your might.
(Martinez)
between knowledge and penetration set in parallel: 1 QH 4:27-28; 7: 27; 11:9; 2:13; 12:13; 13:13-14; 2:9-10; 1QS 4:6; with moderation in everything, of prudence in respect of the truth concerning the mysteries of knowledge. These are the councils of the spirit for the sons of truth in the world. (Martinez)1QS 11:5-8; From the source of His righteousness
is my justification,
and from His marvellous mysteries
is the light in my heart.
My eyes have gazed on that which is eternal,
on wisdom concealed from men;
on a fountain of righteousness
and on a storehouse of power,
on a spring of glory
(hidden) from the assembly of flesh.
God has given them to his chosen ones
as an everlasting possession,
and has caused them to inherit
the lot of the Holy Ones.
He has joined their assembly
to the Sons of Heaven
to be a Council of the Community,
a foundation of the Building of Holiness,
an eternal Plantation throughout all ages to come.
(Vermes)
(Eph speaks of synesis, Col prefers Epignosis cf. 1QH 11:9-10);
heritage as a fruit of the possession of the mystery; Eph 3:6; 1QS 11:5-8;
opposition between light and darkness: Col 1:12-13;and giving joyful thanks to the Father, who has qualified you to share in the inheritance of his holy people in the kingdom of light. 13 For he has rescued us from the dominion of darkness and brought us into the kingdom of the Son he loves, 14 in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins. (NIV) Eph 5:8;once you were darkness, but now you are light in the Lord; walk as children of light (RSV) 1QS 3:17-21;He created man to rule the world, and placed within him two spirits, so that he could walk with them until the moment of his visitation: they are the spirits of truth and of deceit. In the hand of the Prince of Lights is dominion over all the sons of justice; they shall walk on paths of light. And in the hand of the Angel of Darkness is total dominion of the sons of deceit; they walk on paths of darkness.
opposition to evil spirits: Col 1:16; 2:10; Eph 2:2-3; 4:27; 1QS 4:1;
the final eschatological victory: Eph 1:19-21;and what is the immeasurable greatness of his power in us who believe, according to the working of his great might 20 which he accomplished in Christ when he raised him from the dead and made him sit at his right hand in the heavenly places, 21 far above all rule and authority and power and dominion, and above every name that is named, not only in this age but also in that which is to come; (RSV) 1QS 4:18-19;God, in the mysteries of his knowledge and in the wisdom of his glory, has determined an end to the existence of deceit, and on the occasion of his visitation he will obliterate it forever. Meanwhile, truth will rise up forever in the world which has been defiled in the paths of wickedness during the domination of deceit until the time appointed for judgement. (Martinez) 1QM 14:14-15;For great is the p[lan of you]r glory
and your marvellous mysteries on high;
in order to raise from the dust for yourself
and subdue gods. (Martinez)
the saints and the perfect called to be the beneficiaries of the knowledge of the mystery: Eph 2:19-20;So then you are no longer strangers and sojourners, but you are fellow citizens with the saints and members of the household of God, 20 built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the cornerstone (RSV) Col 1:25-26;I became a minister according to the divine office which was given to me for you, to make the word of God fully known, 26 the mystery hidden for ages and generations[a] but now made manifest to his saints (RSV) 1QS 5:13; 4:5.

We could multiply these comparisons, but those we have given suffice to illustrate the point.

It should not be forgotten though, that there is a fundamental difference, namely the place of charity among the virtues. In 1 Cor Paul placed charity above all, even above all knowledge....

It must be added that at Qumran the mysteries do not attain to the divine being itself, while in Pauline theology, the 'spirit' communicated to believers searches the divine depths (1 Cor 2:7-10). ...we speak wisdom among them that are perfect: yet not the wisdom of this world, nor of the princes of this world, that come to nought: But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, even the hidden wisdom, which God ordained before the world unto our glory: Which none of the princes of this world knew: for had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory. But as it is written, Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him. But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God. (KJV)The pleroma of God descends upon Christ, and from Christ descends upon the Church.

The similarities in the texts cited above raise the question of the origin of the Pauline doctrine of mystery. Contrary to the opinion of historians of religion who were anxious to underscore the influence of Hellenism, quite a few authors today judge that Paul could have elaborated the theology of mystery solely from Jewish antecedents, drawing now from apocalyptic sources, now from sapiential traditions.

It would be difficult to trace out the exact limits of the influence exercised by these two sources which are, certainly, distinct, but which had already joined hands in the Book of Daniel. [8 copies of which where found at Qumran]

To conclude: contrary to the opinion generally accepted, the call of the Gentiles does not constitute the primary object of the Pauline 'mystery'. The Epistle to the Ephesians is the only one in which this call figures as an important element of the 'mystery'. Furthermore, the very notion of 'mystery' underwent a noticeable evolution. In the pre-Captivity Epistles, the Apostle mentions various mysteries, almost all of which are on the historical plane. The great mystery whose object is the glorified Christ, is elaborated only in Colossians and Ephesians. The former develops above all the riches of the mystical union of the faithful with the glorious Lord; the latter dwells at length on the doctrine of the ecumenical Christ, the Christ enveloping in his mystical and ecclesial extension both Jews and Gentiles, uniting them in a single body: the Church, his pleroma.

As for the beneficiaries of the 'mystery', Pauline literature sometimes identifies them with the 'perfect': 1 Cor 2:6; Yet among the mature we do impart wisdom, although it is not a wisdom of this age or of the rulers of this age, who are doomed to pass away. (RSV)Eph 4:12-14....For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ: 13 Till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ: 14 That we henceforth be no more children, tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind of doctrine (KJV)

In the Captivity Epistles, or at least in Col 1:28, the perspective changes. Though Paul continues to distinguish between Christians in regard to charisms, he nevertheless proclaims that all men - note the triple repetition of 'every man' - are called to acquire the wisdom of the perfect.

Colossians 1:25-28 (KJV):
Whereof I am made a minister, according to the dispensation of God which is given to me for you, to fulfil the word of God; Even the mystery which hath been hid from ages and from generations, but now is made manifest to his saints: To whom God would make known what is the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles; which is Christ in you, the hope of glory: Whom we preach, warning every man, and teaching every man in all wisdom; that we may present every man perfect in Christ Jesus.


THE TEACHER OF RIGHTEOUSNESS OF QUMRAN AND THE QUESTION OF JUSTIFICATION BY FAITH IN THE THEOLOGY OF THE APOSTLE PAUL
Walter Grundmann[86]

In his presentation of the scholarly discussion of the question connected with the discoveries at Qumran, Millar Burrows states: 'From my first acquaintance with the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1947, what has most surprised and impressed me is the agreement of some aspects of Qumran theology with the most distinctive doctrines of the apostle Paul. The point at which the very roots of Paul's theology and that of Dead Sea Scrolls are intertwined is the experience of moral frustration, and the resulting conviction of man's hopeless sinfulness... The affinity of Paul's doctrine and that of Qumran goes beyond the conviction of human corruption. The Thanksgiving Psalms and the concluding psalm of the Manual of Discipline express a profound sense of the righteousness of God, by which man is given a righteousness he could never attain by himself.[87] This raises important questions for the structure of Pauline theology and its relation to contemporary Jewish doctrinal formation, matters which have been much discussed.[88]...

But in view of the situation at Qumran, the question of the significance of the doctrine of justification by faith in Paul must be raised again. General formulations and summary judgments are not sufficient; they cry out for more precise conclusions. The discovery of the Dead Sea manuscripts has made us familiar with one of the most significant figures in pre-Christian Jewish religious history, and he turns out to be a teacher of justification through grace. From the documents containing his teaching and from the statements of Paul we shall try to determine how each of them understands human existence from the point of view of the justice of man in the sight of God, and where the differences between their doctrines lie.

I

A. Dupont-Sommer begins his short characterization of the 'Teacher of Righteousness' with this sentence: "The Teacher of Righteousness is certainly the most amazing revelation of the Dead Sea Scrolls.'[89] In his thorough investigation of the Teacher of Righteousness, Gert Jeremias describes him as 'the greatest personality of later Judaism known to us'.[90] We learn of him in the Damascus Document, and in the Explanations of Habakkuk and Nahum and of Ps 37. We come upon traces of him in the Hymns of Thanksgiving (Hodayoth), which Hans Bardtke calls 'the most typical and richest part of the writings of Qumran.... There is nothing similar in later Jewish literature or in the rest of the writings of Qumran. Here we are face to face with the great creative religious spirit which formed the community of Qumran.[91] More careful investigation has led to these poems being distinguished into different literary categories; among poems of a fairly conventional stamp some stand out which can be attributed with a fair degree of certainty to the Teacher of Righteousness himself. These above all are significant for the understanding of this important figure....

The poems which can be ascribed to the Teacher of Righteousness contain a series of statements where expressions of his own lowliness and of vivid awareness of his mission are inseparably joined. They constantly exalt the content of his message, and attest the fierce oppositions and enmities into which the fulfillment of his mission brings him.[92] The author describes himself as 'potters clay'; he regards mankind as being 'in sin, in guilty evil-doing from mother's womb to old age'; he turns in upon himself and speaks of the reproaches which await him at God's judgement: 'Fear and trembling take hold of me; my knees knock like water falling from a mountain cliff, for I thought of my misdeeds and the quilt of my fathers' (1QH 4:29-35).... 'no man is just, no son of man is perfect' (1QH 4:30). This despair finds expression in austere words and images: it leaves him forlorn, his soul sinks 'down to the underworld,' 'restless night and day' while his body is sick in every limb.

Against this background the affirmations of salvation and illumination shine in vivid contrast. Through his holy spirit God has given light to the erring, reconciled the guilty to himself, given stability to the waverer, and granted health and wholeness to the sick. 'I will praise you Lord, for you have held me up in your strength and poured out over me your holy spirit; and you have given me strength, and I do not waver' (1QH 7:6f.). The Teacher is, then, a prophet in virtue of the gift of God's holy spirit. Of the greatest importance is the difference between this claim and the Jewish doctrine that no prophet had risen up since Malachi, and that the holy spirit had departed from Israel (1 Sota 13,2), a doctrine which is foreshadowed in Ps 74:9 and Macc 9:27 and in the prayer of Azariah 13f.; it is found in syr. Bar., 85:3, and attested for Judaism by Origen (Contra Celsum, 7,8). One must not forget that this doctrine was developed and strengthened by the Teacher's opponents with the object of denying his prophetic character. In another passage he proclaims 'I praise you Lord, for the light of your covenant has lit up my face; I seek you, and sure as the glow of morning have you appeared to give me perfect light (1QH 4:5f.) [Conze translates '...you appeared to me as perfect light.'] In all this he praises God's action.; it is clear from the background of these confident claims that God's action is upon an unworthy subject. God's action is conditioned by his mercy. If he had been 'cast out from your alliance', he now proclaims 'As I thought of the strength of your hand and the multitude of your mercies, I could hold myself erect again, and I stood, my spirit firm against the plague, for I relied on the evidence of your mercy and the greatness of your pity. For you forgive sins, in order to cleanse mankind through your justice' (1QH 4:35-7). Salvation, health, enlightenment, wisdom, standing erect through God's spirit and mercy, all this the Teacher has experienced.

In this connection he makes express mention of man's cleansing from sin through God's justice. This justice of God is, as in the Old Testament, the expression of his fidelity to his covenant; it is at once a gift which cleanses men and the power which brings men under his dominion in the alliance. It is this experience of God's justice as his fidelity to his covenant which constitutes the Teacher of Righteousness as a prophet and teacher to the community which listens to his words. This he confesses when he says: 'Your justice has brought me into the service of your alliance; I rely on your truth' (1QH 7:19f.). This truth is no other than the Torah, by whose proclamation he receives his enlightenment and wisdom, in which he experiences God's strength and mercy, whose exposition is the prophetical office which makes him a unique teacher. He who has been chosen out and granted the revelation of the holy spirit has become a 'sign which shall be contradicted' (cf.Luke 2:34), And Simeon blessed them, and said unto Mary his mother, Behold, this child is set for the fall and rising again of many in Israel; and for a sign which shall be spoken against (KJV)'a scandal for evil-doers and a physician for all who have turned away from sin'; he has been made 'wisdom for fools and firmness for all broken hearts', 'mockery and contempt for the wicked, a foundation stone of truth and understanding for the honest'; a 'laughing-stock for evil doers', a 'container for the elect of justice and a herald of the knowledge of wonderful secrets' (1 QH 2:8-13). He proclaims of himself: 'you constituted me father to the sons of your favour, to care for the men of your miraculous sign' (1QH 7:20-21) and he shows full gratitude: 'Through me you have brought light to many eyes, have shown your might immeasurable, for you have made known to me the secrets of your marvels' (1QH 4:27-28). His mouth has become a spring of living water: 'And you, God, have put in my mouth... a spring of living water, which does not deceive when it opens up the heavens' (1QH 8:16-17).

By his doctrine, then, he brings salvation to others... The historical situation of this community is clear from the allegory of the Hymn 1QH 8:4-40; it speaks of water-plants in the midst of which are hidden 'trees of life at mystic springs', whose purpose is 'to sprout forth shoots for an eternal planting'. The water-plants which grow, but have no roots in the water and must therefore pass away, represent Israel's desertion of God's covenant, while the trees of life represent the Hasidim, from whose midst comes forth the 'shoot for an eternal planting'. viz: the Qumran community, which constitutes the heavenly Jerusalem, built on a rock beyond the waters of Hades (1QH 6:24-26). Since the factor which decides whether one belongs to the eternal planting and the heavenly Jerusalem or not is one's attitude to the doctrine of the Teacher, it is by this criterion that the just and unjust are differentiated. It is this doctrine then, which plays the decisive part in the fate of the Israelites. Here is a claim to importance whose like has not yet been found in later Judaism. It is clearly expressed in the Teacher's characterization of himself as 'container as 'container for the elect of justice' and immediately afterwards 'herald of the knowledge of wonderful secrets', a claim which alludes to the juncture in his doctrine of Law and Apocalyptic: 'enemy of all who proclaim error', 'Lord of peace for all who contemplate truth' and 'a spirit of Zeal for all who live by flattery' (1QH 2:13-15). Zeal for Israel, the enlightenment of an apocalyptic writer, and the earnestness of a teacher of the Law, all enter into his consciousness of his mission and go to form his claim to importance.

It is not surprising that this claim and this consciousness encounter opposition. The Hymns of the Teacher show clearly the struggles in which he is involved. Opposition springs up in his own community; opposition rises from outside. 'I have brought... strife and battle to my friends, anger and opposition to all who enter my covenant, murmuring and unwillingness to those who gather about me. Even those who ate my bread have kicked out against me, those who joined my company have cursed me, my followers are refractory and murmur on every side, and blasphemously peddle the secrets you have revealed to me among the sons of perdition' (1QH 5:22-25). His Rule imposes stern discipline upon the community, and his opposition raised results in defection. This weighs upon him all the more because he sees in his community the holy remnant announced by the prophets. He says he has been consoled from 'the din of nations and turmoil of kingdoms as they gathered against my poor folk whom you have raised to some slight life-force in your people. And a remnant remained in your heritage, and you cleansed it thoroughly of guilt, so that all its works should be done in your truth and show forth your praise' (1QH 6:7-9). So he founds a community which is the holy remnant of Israel, harassed by the mass of the people, and their chiefs, and the adherents of their chiefs. It is to this community that he gives a rule of life. Its mission extends beyond Israel: 'All peoples shall recognize your reliability and all nations your glory' (1QH 6:12). Here universalist aspects of the older prophetic preaching, which were suppressed in Israel after the exile, come to life again. But for Israel itself the appendices of the Rule of the Community sketch a model for the future eschatological way of life, in which the Teacher's community remains the nucleus.

The Teacher of Righteousness and his community are harassed also from outside: 'I praise you Lord; your eyes watch over my soul, and you have rescued the soul of the poor they planned to destroy, shedding their blood at your services. Only they did not know that my path is in your sight. And they mad me a despicable laughing-stock on the lips of all who traffic in deceit. But your help, my God, has freed the humble and wretched from the power of those who were stronger than he' (1QH 2:31-35) This passage mentions an attack on the Teacher of Righteousness aimed at his destruction. The attack failed, for the Teacher speaks of his rescue, calling himself humble and wretched.

Is this intended as an allusion to the events preserved in various passages of 1QpHab? Mention is made of two opponents of the Teacher, once of a sacrilegious priest, the other time of the man of lies, who, with his followers, is called a traitor (1QpHab 2:1-10). This reflects the twofold oppression just mentioned. While the sacrilegious priest is the representative of the Temple high priesthood, from which the Teacher of Righteousness and his community have separated themselves, the man of lies is probably the leader of the opposition from Hasidim circles, i.e. members of his own community who have risen up against the Teacher and split off from him. Hab 1:12ff. refers to him: 'He sides with the house of Absalom and the men of their council, who were silent at the condemnation of the Teacher of Righteousness and did not help him against the man of lies who despised the Law in the midst of their gathering ' (1QpHab 5:9-12). Since the term 'condemnation' indicates a process between members of the community, we must suppose here conflict in the community which terminated in apostasy. The opponent of the Teacher who is termed the 'man of lies' opposed his interpretation of the Law, which had led to the separation from people and Temple, ana gained - as we see especially in the later Damascus Document - a strong following. But the sacrilegious priest appears from outside to oppose the Teacher and his Way. He and his guilt, incurred 'from his action to the Teacher and his community', are mentioned in 1QpHab 11:8-11 and 8:5-13. In a comment on Hab 2:15 we are told that the sacrilegious priest 'pursued the Teacher of Righteousness to swallow him up in the fury of his rage. In the place of his exile and on the feast day of peace, the Day of Reconciliation, he appeared before them to swallow them up and to lead them astray on the fast-day, the Sabbath of Peace' (1QpHab 9:4-8). This clearly refers to a persecution on the part of the high priest of Jerusalem for the purpose of annihilating the community. The Teacher of Righteousness himself admits: 'Indeed they have rejected me, and take no notice of me; when you show yourself clearly to me they thrust me forth from the land as a bird from its nest; all my friends and relatives have deserted me and consider me a broken vessel' (1QH 4:8-9). So the Teacher has been driven out of the land, his relations and all his former friends (who are probably to be found in Hasidim circles and in his own community, since 1QpHab 5:9-12 calls them 'the House of Absalom') have deserted him. The high priest, who is called the sacrilegious priest, rises up against the Teacher who has opposed him; this has led to real attacks on the Teacher and to assaults on his person. The high priest has pursued him and his community even in their exile in Ein-Feshka (an oasis and Essene agricultural outpost on the banks of the Dead Sea a short distance south of Qumran] or Qumran; this occurred on the Day of Reconciliation, which they held according to a calendar different from that in Jerusalem; the high priest's attack was aimed at turning the Teacher from his Way. It seems that the Teacher was forced to remain in hiding for some time. He says 'You held closed the mouth of lions, whose teeth were as a sword,and whose fangs are as lances. All their tendrils are serpents' venom, to plunder; though great in number, they did not open their mouths against me, for you, my God, had hidden me from men's sight, and your Law had... gone into hiding until the time when your help was revealed to me, for you did not leave my soul in misery, but listened to my cries in the bitter trials of my soul. You have swept away and set to right my wretchedness because of my groanings, and rescued the soul of the poor from the den of lions' (1QH 5:9-13). In this paragraph the Teacher's consciousness of his mission is again to be seen. He is so closely linked to the Torah that when he is hidden, the Torah is hidden too. To him alone is its meaning made clear, and therefore with his rescue the Torah too is revealed.

The conflicts point to opposition also from within. 'The light of my face has been dimmed into darkness, my brilliance changed into blackness. You, my God, made a bulwark in my heart, but they carried it forth to oppress it, and built a barrier of darkness round me; sighs were my bread and endless tears my drink, for my eyes had grown weak with worry and my soul was daily in bitterness; sickness and misery surrounded me; derision was on my face, and my bread was transformed into conflict....' (1QH 5:32-350. The opposition is even physical: 'All the foundations of my body were mistreated; my bones fell apart, my shoulders rose aloft like a ship in a fierce storm, and a tempest swallowed me up because of their destructive sins' (1QH 7:4-5)....

But amid this opposition the Teacher of Righteousness experiences assistance: I praise you, Lord, for supporting me with your strength and for sending down upon me your holy spirit', he says immediately after the above confession (1QH 7:6). 'Your action to the poor has been wonderful' (1QH 7:15-16); he has been refined as silver in a furnace. He confesses 'My God, you convert tempest into calm, and have brought the soul of the poor into safety, rescued him (as a shepherd from the jaws) of lions' (1QH 7:18-19). In the attacks he gains the redeeming knowledge 'that there is hope for those who turn back from sin and evil-doing' (1QH 6:6).

Through the whole tale of the attacks on and opposition to the Teacher runs a passionate fury against his opponents; they are horned vipers; like snakes, they have designs on his life. Apocalyptic ideas of annihilation in battle and of their destruction in fiery judgment come easily to him.

The Teacher of Righteousness is a man of deep humility and exalted consciousness of a mission based on a powerful religious experience, full of devotion to God's mysteries and commandments, full of warm affection for his community, full also of irreconcilable hatred for his opponents. He comes from a priestly, perhaps even Zadokite family. In 4QpPs 37, 2:15-16 we read: 'This is to be understood of the priest, the Teacher [of Righteousness, whom God] ordained to build up for him the community [of truth]'. It is in virtue of prophetic authority, realized through knowledge of God's mysteries, that he builds up the community. In 4QpHab 2:6-9 there is a question of those who violate the alliance, 'Who do not believe it when they hear everything which will come upon the last generation, from the mouth of the priest whom God has given to the community to interpret all the sayings of his servants the prophets'; and in 1QpHab 7:4-5 we read: to him has 'God made known all the secrets of the sayings of the prophets'. Therefore he is characterized as the last of the prophets; the reason for this is to be found in his consciousness of his mission: he is the touchstone of salvation or damnation.

II

The name of this Teacher of Righteousness and the period of Jewish history in which he lived remain, now as before, open questions; but his personality is coming more sharply into focus. [While the identity of the Teacher remains unknown, a good case has been made by Geza Vermes[93] for dating his activity to the mid-second century BCE, based on a reasonably convincing identification of his opponent, the wicked priest, with Jonathan Maccabee.] We see a man who is hemmed about with conflict and persecuted for the sake of his doctrine, and the attitude this compels him to adopt towards contemporary issues; who founded an order of brethren and gave it a rule, a doctrine and a way of life; who may well be the architect of the much discussed buildings of the monastic settlement of Qumran;[94] who knows that all mankind is fallen and guilty, and who is made herald and minstrel of the mercy and grace of a saving God on which his life is based. These are the determining elements of his doctrine.

In the Hymns of Thanksgiving, man's justice and God's mercy are directly linked. He bears witness: 'Only through your goodness can a man be just' (1QH 13:16-17). For him, man is 'guilty of infidelity from his mother's womb till old age. And I, for my part, have recognized that man has no justice, and the son of man is ever imperfect' (1QH 4:29-31). This recognition leads him to seek refuge in God's mercy, through which he is raised up: 'for I rely on the favour and the fullness of the mercy you have shown, for you forgive sins, to cleanse man from quilt by your justice' (1QH 4:36-37). It is this recognition which gives him his significance as Teacher of his order: 'your justice has set me up to further your alliance, and I rely on your truth... you made me a father to the sons of your mercy (1QH 7:19-20); the Teacher styles himself father, as was customary in Israel; what the sons learn from their father is: 'no man can subsist in the face of your anger, but you lead all the sons of your truth to forgiveness in your sight; you cleanse them from their sins through your great goodness and the fullness of your pity, to bring them into your presence for all eternity' (1QH 7:29-31). So the Teacher of Righteousness knows that men may be just before their fellow men, but are not just in God's sight: 'I know I rejoice in forgiveness and morn freely my former sins. And I have recognized that all hope is in the proofs of your favour, and all expectation in the fullness of your strength, for no man can be just at your tribunal, nor (appeal against) your judgement. One man may be just before another, and one spirit the peer of another, but no strength equals your might' (1QH 9:13-17). If the Hodayoth [1QH] really are the meditation-book - which is the view supported by Hans Bardtke - then these sayings are not only significant for individuals, but determine the life of a community, 'a typical life of prayer in God's sight', 'a continuous exercising and practising of will and spirit in life and doctrine'.[95]

Various formulations contained in liturgico-hymnic sayings of the Rule of the Community confirm this conclusion. 'Indeed my own justification is God's work, and in his hands lie my blameless way of life and my heart's eloquence; through his justice have my sins been wiped out' (1QS 11:2-3). In another passage: '...if my sinful flesh brings me low, through God's justice will my justification endure forever... his pity has brought me to himself, and the proofs of his favour have brought my justification. Through the justice of his truth has he made me just; he will forgive my sins in the fullness of his goodness, in his justice make me clean from the uncleanness of men, and from the sins of the sons of men, to praise God for his justice' (1QS 11:12-15). In all these passages it is clear that the justice which man possesses in God's sight is beyond his own powers to gain; it is a gift from God's goodness and favour, his mercy and grace.

How does this relate to the undeniable fact that the brotherhood of Qumran received from the Teacher of Righteousness a rule in which a very strict interpretation of the Torah is given, and a conscientious attitude towards the Torah is encouraged and put into practice? In the Qumran Commentary on Habakkuk, the phrase of Habakkuk 2:4 Behold, he whose soul is not upright in him shall fail, but the righteous shall live by his faith. (RSV) (used often by Paul, too) is interpreted: 'This means all who accomplish the Law in the House of Judah, [and] whom God will rescue because of their suffering and their fidelity to the Teacher of Righteousness' (1QpHab 8:1-3). Fidelity to the Teacher of Righteousness and accomplishment of the Law are put side by side. Salvation is won by faithful adherence to his person and teaching, by the suffering which the Teacher's followers endure, probably because of this fidelity, and by accomplishment of the Torah....

III

The state of affairs which we've presented, and above all the doctrine of the Teacher of Righteousness, compels us to direct our attention to the question of Paul's precise meaning when he speaks of 'justice of God from faith', which he defines more precisely as 'justice outside the Law' (Rom 1:16-17;16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth; to the Jew first, and also to the Greek
17 For therein is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith: as it is written, The just shall live by faith. [Hab. 2:4] (KJV)
3:21-28). 21 But now apart from the law the righteousness of God has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify.
22 This righteousness is given through faith in[b] Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference between Jew and Gentile,
23 for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,
24 and all are justified freely by his grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus.
25 God presented Christ as a sacrifice of atonement,[c] through the shedding of his blood—to be received by faith. He did this to demonstrate his righteousness, because in his forbearance he had left the sins committed beforehand unpunished—
26 he did it to demonstrate his righteousness at the present time, so as to be just and the one who justifies those who have faith in Jesus.
27 Where, then, is boasting? It is excluded. Because of what law? The law that requires works? No, because of the law that requires faith.
28 For we maintain that a person is justified by faith apart from the works of the law. (NIV)
Albrecht Oepke has shown, in his important study on the history of the concept,[96] that 'justice of God' is a Jewish formula which Paul adopted, while radically altering its sense. Justice of God became in Judaism a concept which had no relation to the attitude of God, but is rather connected with the activity of those who accomplish it on earth. Justice of God meant 'man's justice as recognized by God'. This is how the concept is understood in the Testament of the XII Patriarchs, a document very close to Qumran Theology, in which, no less than in Paul, we find the expression dikaiossune tou theou (Test. Dan 6:10).[97] Paul calls this justice 'my own justice from the Law', and contrasts it with 'justice through faith in Christ, justice from God on the grounds of faith' (Phil 3:9). And be found in him, not having mine own righteousness, which is of the law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith (KJV) The second expression clarifies the first.

The formulation 'justice of God' is itself used, and perhaps coined, at Qumran. It is attested in 1QS 11:11-12; As for me, if I stumble,
the mercies of God shall be my salvation always;
and if I fall in the sin of the flesh,
in the justice of God, which endures eternally, shall my judgement be. (Martinez)
in 1QS 11:3-5 As for me,
my justification is with God.
In His hand are the perfection of my way
and the uprightness of my heart.
He will wipe out my transgression
through his righteousness.
(Vermes)
and 1QS 11:14-15 He will draw me near by His grace,
and by His mercy will He bring my justification.
He will judge me in the righteousness of His truth
and in the greatness of His goodness
He will pardon all of my sins.
(Vermes)
there is mention in connection with God of 'his justice; in the Hymns, the Teacher of Righteousness calls the justice of God his own by speaking of 'your' justice (1QH 4:37; 7:19). Here, as we have already shown, the Teacher of Righteousness, as well as the pious of Qumran, are thinking of God's attitude as shown in his fidelity to his covenant, for they are familiar with Old Testament thought about God's attitude to the people of his alliance. This is especially clear in 1QS 9:14, where 'his true justice' is spoken of, and in 1QH 7:19f., with the parallelism between justice and truth (in the sense of fidelity or reliability), and with express reference to God's alliance.

For Paul too, the 'justice from God on the grounds of faith', of which he speaks in Phil 3:9 [see Phil 3:4-12], If any other man thinks he has reason for confidence in the flesh, I have more: 5 circumcised on the eighth day, of the people of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew born of Hebrews; as to the law a Pharisee, 6 as to zeal a persecutor of the church, as to righteousness under the law blameless. 7 But whatever gain I had, I counted as loss for the sake of Christ. 8 Indeed I count everything as loss because of the surpassing worth of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord. For his sake I have suffered the loss of all things, and count them as refuse, in order that I may gain Christ 9 and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own, based on law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness from God that depends on faith; 10 that I may know him and the power of his resurrection, and may share his sufferings, becoming like him in his death, 11 that if possible I may attain the resurrection from the dead. 12 Not that I have already obtained this or am already perfect; but I press on to make it my own, because Christ Jesus has made me his own. (RSV) is a pre-Christian reality. This is shown by his speaking of God's justice without the Law as of something 'attested by the Law and the Prophets... justice of God through faith in Christ for all believers' (Rom 3:21f.). [see Rom 3:20-26] 20 Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for by the law is the knowledge of sin.
21 But now the righteousness of God without the law is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets;
22 Even the righteousness of God which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference:
23 For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God;
24 Being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus:
25 Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God;
26 To declare, I say, at this time his righteousness: that he might be just, and the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus.
(KJV)
This Paul discerns in Abraham (Rom 4) [see Rom 4:1-15], What then shall we say about[a] Abraham, our forefather according to the flesh? 2 For if Abraham was justified by works, he has something to boast about, but not before God. 3 For what does the scripture say? “Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness.” 4 Now to one who works, his wages are not reckoned as a gift but as his due. 5 And to one who does not work but trusts him who justifies the ungodly, his faith is reckoned as righteousness. 6 So also David pronounces a blessing upon the man to whom God reckons righteousness apart from works: 7 “Blessed are those whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered; 8 blessed is the man against whom the Lord will not reckon his sin.” 9 Is this blessing pronounced only upon the circumcised, or also upon the uncircumcised? We say that faith was reckoned to Abraham as righteousness. 10 How then was it reckoned to him? Was it before or after he had been circumcised? It was not after, but before he was circumcised. 11 He received circumcision as a sign or seal of the righteousness which he had by faith while he was still uncircumcised. The purpose was to make him the father of all who believe without being circumcised and who thus have righteousness reckoned to them, 12 and likewise the father of the circumcised who are not merely circumcised but also follow the example of the faith which our father Abraham had before he was circumcised. God’s Promise Realized through Faith 13 The promise to Abraham and his descendants, that they should inherit the world, did not come through the law but through the righteousness of faith. 14 If it is the adherents of the law who are to be the heirs, faith is null and the promise is void. 15 For the law brings wrath, but where there is no law there is no transgression. (RSV)whom he entitles their father, in complete agreement with Jewish theology, as we have already seen. Here Gen 15:5-7 And he brought him forth abroad, and said, Look now toward heaven, and tell the stars, if thou be able to number them: and he said unto him, So shall thy seed be. 6 And he believed in the Lord; and he counted it to him for righteousness. 7 And he said unto him, I am the Lord that brought thee out of Ur of the Chaldees, to give thee this land to inherit it. (KJV) has the same significance for him as for the rabbis. He describes Abraham's faith thus: In God who had promised to make him father of many peoples 'he believed as in one who gives life to the dead, calls into being what does not yet exist' (Rom 4:17). 17 as it is written, “I have made you the father of many nations”—in the presence of the God in whom he believed, who gives life to the dead and calls into existence the things that do not exist. (RSV) So with his teaching on justice by faith Paul consciously returns to the Old Testament reality. But unlike the Rabbis, the Teacher of Righteousness and the Epistle of James, he does not connect justice by faith with justice by the Law; rather he contrasts them, as mutually exclusive. This leads him, for example, to alter the quotation from Habakkuk - cf. Rom 1:17; 17 For in it the righteousness of God is revealed through faith for faith; as it is written, “He who through faith is righteous shall live. (RSV)Gal 3:11 11 Now it is evident that no man is justified before God by the law; for “He who through faith is righteous shall live” (RSV) - from 'the just will live by faith' to 'he who through faith is just shall live'....

[Paul, describing himself before Jesus appeared to him on the road to Damascus] 'according to the Law a Pharisee, according to zeal, a persecutor of the community, according to justice founded on the Law, faultless' (Phil 3:6). Similarly in Galatians: 'You have heard of my former way of life in Judaism, that I furiously persecuted and plundered God's community, and progressed further in Judaism than many of my contemporaries, for my zeal for our ancestral traditions was extreme' (Gal 1:13f). This makes it clear Paul was one of those Jews who held themselves above reproach in their fidelity to the Law, 'according to justice founded on the Law faultless'; he stands at the head of his contemporaries as far as his reliability as a Jew is concerned; for the Law prescribes the destruction of heretics, and the claim that the crucified Jesus is the promised Messiah is an affront and mockery to Jewish hope. Persecution of the community is a proof of his zeal for the ancestral traditions, and attests his progress in Judaism.

In this connection the concept of 'zeal' has special importance. Since the time of the Maccabees it had become a living reality again, oriented towards the figure of the Priest Phinehas in Num 25. 25 While Israel dwelt in Shittim the people began to play the harlot with the daughters of Moab. 2 These invited the people to the sacrifices of their gods, and the people ate, and bowed down to their gods. 3 So Israel yoked himself to Ba′al of Pe′or. And the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel; 4 and the Lord said to Moses, “Take all the chiefs of the people, and hang them in the sun before the Lord, that the fierce anger of the Lord may turn away from Israel.” 5 And Moses said to the judges of Israel, “Every one of you slay his men who have yoked themselves to Ba′al of Pe′or.”
6 And behold, one of the people of Israel came and brought a Midianite woman to his family, in the sight of Moses and in the sight of the whole congregation of the people of Israel, while they were weeping at the door of the tent of meeting. 7 When Phinehas the son of Eleazar, son of Aaron the priest, saw it, he rose and left the congregation, and took a spear in his hand 8 and went after the man of Israel into the inner room, and pierced both of them, the man of Israel and the woman, through her body. Thus the plague was stayed from the people of Israel. 9 Nevertheless those that died by the plague were twenty-four thousand.
10 And the Lord said to Moses, 11 “Phinehas the son of Eleazar, son of Aaron the priest, has turned back my wrath from the people of Israel, in that he was jealous with my jealousy among them, so that I did not consume the people of Israel in my jealousy. 12 Therefore say, ‘Behold, I give to him my covenant of peace; 13 and it shall be to him, and to his descendants after him, the covenant of a perpetual priesthood, because he was jealous for his God, and made atonement for the people of Israel.’”
14 The name of the slain man of Israel, who was slain with the Midianite woman, was Zimri the son of Salu, head of a fathers’ house belonging to the Simeonites. 15 And the name of the Midianite woman who was slain was Cozbi the daughter of Zur, who was the head of the people of a fathers’ house in Midian.
16 And the Lord said to Moses, 17 “Harass the Midianites, and smite them; 18 for they have harassed you with their wiles, with which they beguiled you in the matter of Peor, and in the matter of Cozbi, the daughter of the prince of Midian, their sister, who was slain on the day of the plague on account of Peor.”
(RSV)
Phinehas served as a model for the priest Mattathias, the initiator of the Maccabean movement (1 Macc 2:26, 54; also the whole chapter 1 Macc 2, further Sirach 45:23-26; cf., also 1 Chr 9:20; Ps 106: 29ff.). Paul is a zealot of the same kind as Phinehas. He strides forward, when the Sanhedrin's hands have been bound by Roman religious policy and the delaying attitude of the Pharisees (cf. Acts 5: 34-40), to spontaneous revenge on Jesus' followers, whose confession of the crucified Messiah he considers a sacrilegious blasphemy (cf. Gal 1:13f.; Phil 3:6; Acts 22:3-5; I am a Jew, born at Tarsus in Cili′cia, but brought up in this city at the feet of Gama′li-el, educated according to the strict manner of the law of our fathers, being zealous for God as you all are this day. 4 I persecuted this Way to the death, binding and delivering to prison both men and women, 5 as the high priest and the whole council of elders bear me witness. From them I received letters to the brethren, and I journeyed to Damascus to take those also who were there and bring them in bonds to Jerusalem to be punished. (RSV)1 Cor 1:23; Gal 3: 13). His encounter with the glorified Christ overcomes by means of Jesus' own life the form of devotion shown in this zeal; so we read in 1 Cor 13:4: love is not envious.

This means that precisely his most powerful evidence, zeal for God's Law, is revealed by the appearance of our Lord before Damascus as enmity to God's community. His greatest zeal constitutes his deepest sin; his fulfilment of the Law constitutes his enmity to God. Paul is confronted with this situation before Damascus and puts to himself the question: Jesus Christ or the Law? From this experience springs the statement 'The end of the Law is Christ, for the justification of every believer' (Rom 10:4). For Christ is the end of the law, that every one who has faith may be justified. (RSV) Whatever conceivable presuppositions this statement may have had in Jewish theology, in Paul's case the experience before Damascus is decisive. That Christ is the end of the Law means not only that he puts a term to the validity of the Law, but also and above all, that he takes the place of the Law. What the Law was for the Pharisaic Jew Saul-Paul, so is Christ for Paul the Christian.... Hence inevitably justice from faith in Christ is contrasted with justice from the Law.

This brings us to a crux of our consideration. In the First Epistle to the Corinthians Paul writes: 'Through God you are in Jesus Christ, who has been made for us God's wisdom and justice and rescue and salvation; so, as it is written, let him who wants to pride himself, pride himself in the Lord (1 Cor 1:30-1). 30 He is the source of your life in Christ Jesus, whom God made our wisdom, our righteousness and sanctification and redemption; 31 therefore, as it is written, “Let him who boasts, boast of the Lord.” (RSV)Here it is made clear that the justice which comes from God is Jesus Christ; man wins justice by incorporation into Christ. First let us consider the remark: 'Christ has been made for us God's wisdom.' It may be reasonably assumed that Paul, during his stay in Damascus, had connections with those people from Qumran who - according to the document entitled 'The community of the new alliance in Damascus' [Damascus Document] - had found refuge in Damascus at about the beginning of our era.[98] They could have provided the occasion of his questions about justice, after his blameless justice according to the Law had been revealed to him as enmity to God. But - and this is the novelty: Paul connects the justice of God, gift of grace to all believers, with Jesus Christ, who before Damascus had overcome him and become his Lord. Of him Paul confesses: 'Through the Law I am dead to the Law, to live to God. I am crucified with Christ. I live no more as myself, rather Christ lives in me; but in so far as I live in the flesh I live in faith to God's son, who loved me and delivered himself up for me' (Gal 2:19-20). Justice of God is God's gift, bestowed upon men in personal union with Jesus Christ. Thus, clearly, what is specific to the Christian faith is not original thoughts and ideas unattested elsewhere in the history of religions, nor is it a new theological system; there exist possible starting points for this outside the Christian faith. What is specific is concerned with a person, the person of Jesus Christ....

When Paul ranks himself among the witnesses of the resurrection and calls himself apostle in company with the other apostles, he gives himself a place in the story of Christ. At the same time he emphasizes his independence of a human call and of human instruction, and his immediate contact with the Lord Christ. He calls himself apostle 'not from men or through a man, but through Jesus Christ and God the Father who raised him from the dead' (Gal 1:1). He stresses 'I would have you know, brethren, the gospel I preach is not according to human fashion, since I also did not receive it from men or by instruction in it, but through the revelation of Jesus Christ' (Gal 1:11f.). The independence which results from his immediate contact with Christ has its effect in his message. Paul is aware of its distinctiveness with respect to the original apostolic witness to the event of Christ. This consists in a thorough and consistent reflection on the situation which arises from Jesus' crucifixion and resurrection; he regards it as the hidden but effective irruption of the world to come. This is why he relates Jesus Christ as the second Adam to the first Adam, and thereby makes it clear that, with the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus, the decisive turning point in the history of mankind, which affects all mankind, has occurred....

Part of this change from one age to another lies in the fact that the Law loses its validity and Christ takes its place, so that there no longer exists a justice in God's sight which can be gained by the works prescribed by the Law; the only justice now is from faith in Jesus Christ. This faith is an answer to the call of Jesus Christ....

Justification of sinners by faith without works of the Law (Rom 3:28) For we hold that a man is justified by faith apart from works of law. (RSV)is based upon Jesus' cross and resurrection. Paul adopts the sentence, probably primitive in Christianity and formulated before him: 'He was delivered up for our sins and raised up for our justification' (Rom 4:25). [See Rom 4:16-25] 16 That is why it depends on faith, in order that the promise may rest on grace and be guaranteed to all his descendants—not only to the adherents of the law but also to those who share the faith of Abraham, for he is the father of us all, 17 as it is written, “I have made you the father of many nations”—in the presence of the God in whom he believed, who gives life to the dead and calls into existence the things that do not exist. 18 In hope he believed against hope, that he should become the father of many nations; as he had been told, “So shall your descendants be.” 19 He did not weaken in faith when he considered his own body, which was as good as dead because he was about a hundred years old, or when he considered the barrenness of Sarah’s womb. 20 No distrust made him waver concerning the promise of God, but he grew strong in his faith as he gave glory to God, 21 fully convinced that God was able to do what he had promised. 22 That is why his faith was “reckoned to him as righteousness.” 23 But the words, “it was reckoned to him,” were written not for his sake alone, 24 but for ours also. It will be reckoned to us who believe in him that raised from the dead Jesus our Lord, 25 who was put to death for our trespasses and raised for our justification. (RSV)....

For Paul the Holy Spirit is 'Christ in us', as the phenomenon which determines man's personal life. 'Now I live no more as myself, but Christ lives in me' (Gal 2: 20). What is in Galatians a personal confession is expressed as a general principal in Rom 8:9-11; 9 But you are not in the flesh, you are in the Spirit, if in fact the Spirit of God dwells in you. Any one who does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him. 10 But if Christ is in you, although your bodies are dead because of sin, your spirits are alive because of righteousness. 11 If the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised Christ Jesus from the dead will give life to your mortal bodies also through his Spirit which dwells in you. (RSV) there Paul interchanges and so interprets: Spirit of God, Spirit of Christ, Christ within us, Spirit of him whom Christ raised from the dead, his Spirit dwelling in us. This means that for Paul the Holy Spirit is the glorified Lord: 'The Lord is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom to be found' (2 Cor 3:17)....

The new existence of the believer is realized as existence with Christ, for God has ordained for them to become 'formed into the image of his son, so that he be the first-born among many brethren'; to this end have they been called and acquitted (Rom 8:29; For those whom he foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, in order that he might be the first-born among many brethren. (RSV)also Phil 3:20-21), But our commonwealth is in heaven, and from it we await a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ, 21 who will change our lowly body to be like his glorious body, by the power which enables him even to subject all things to himself. (RSV)so justification begins a process which is achieved in being formed with Christ into his image, and is completed in a common glorification (cf. also 2 Cor 3:16-18). but when a man turns to the Lord the veil is removed. 17 Now the Lord is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom. 18 And we all, with unveiled face, beholding[a] the glory of the Lord, are being changed into his likeness from one degree of glory to another; for this comes from the Lord who is the Spirit. (RSV) This glorification is described by Paul simply as eternal 'union with Christ' (cf. Phil 1:23; 1 Thess 4:13-17). 13 But we would not have you ignorant, brethren, concerning those who are asleep, that you may not grieve as others do who have no hope. 14 For since we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so, through Jesus, God will bring with him those who have fallen asleep. 15 For this we declare to you by the word of the Lord, that we who are alive, who are left until the coming of the Lord, shall not precede those who have fallen asleep. 16 For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a cry of command, with the archangel’s call, and with the sound of the trumpet of God. And the dead in Christ will rise first; 17 then we who are alive, who are left, shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air; and so we shall always be with the Lord. 18 Therefore comfort one another with these words. (RSV)


CONTRIBUTIONS MADE BY QUMRAN TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS
Franz Mussner[105]

K.G. Kuhn has already drawn attention to certain parallels in language and style between the parenetical section of Eph and the Scrolls. The present essay aims at extending this investigation into various important recurring themes, concepts and patterns of thought in the Epistle.

I. 'Mystery'

The term mysterion appears six times in Eph (1:9; 3:3, 4, 9; 5:32; 6:19). The same word recurs frequently in the Scrolls, and indeed in a pattern of thought that in part overlaps that of the Epistle.

1.THE SCROLLS:

(a) 1QS 4:18-19

'And God, in the mysteries (brz) of his understanding and in his glorious wisdom has set a time (qs) for the duration of perversity, and at the time of the visitation he will destroy it forever, and then will arise the truth of the world (for the world).'

The community is convinced that all time is determined by God, especially the hour of his action at the end of time. Time lies 'in the mysteries' of his wise providence.

(b) 1QS11:5-6

'From the fount of his righteousness flow (Flows) the laws (my) [his?] righteousness) as light in my heart. From the mysteries of his wonder (from his wonderful mysteries), (which are hidden) in the eternal Being. My eye has beheld knowledge which is hidden from men; insight and prudence (are hidden) from the sons of men'

The psalmist, as the representative of the community, has, by God's grace, been granted insight into the 'mysteries' of heaven which are known only to God and withheld from the children of men (cf. 1QS 11:3; 1QM14:14 '...and the mysteries ofthy wonderful deeds are in the heights of the heavens'). Noteworthy too is the close association of the synonyms 'insight', 'knowledge', and 'prudence' (in Greek probably gnosis, epignosis, dianoia).

(c) 1QpHab 7:13

' For all God's times (qysy) will arrive at their goal (ybw'w ltkwnm). as he ordained it for them in the mysteries of his wisdom.'

The translation and interpretation of this passage are much disputed...

(d) 1QH 1:21

'This I received from thy insight, for thou thast opened my ear to wonderful mysteries.'

The context makes it clear that the 'insight' gained by the psalmist refers to the 'wonderful mysteries of creation' (cf. 1:6-20). In this way the psalmist (the Teacher of Righteousness) has become for the chosen ones of righteousness the "bearer of knowledge in wonderful mysteries' (2:3), which are now made to refer to the salvation of the community, their wonderful deliverance from the hosts of Belial. Cf. also 1QH 4:27f. ('and through me thou hast illuminated the face of many,... for thou didst reveal to me the mysteries of thy wonder... to make known thy mighty works to all the living'); 7:26f., 11:4, 8, 9, 27, 28; 12:11f. The psalmist's congretation has become a community of those who understand God's salvific plan!

COMPARISON WITH EPHESIANS:

In essence the teaching concerning 'mystery' in the Epistle is as follows:

(i) God has made known to the Christian community an eschatological 'mystery', whose execution will lead to the fullness of time: the subjection of the universe to the unifying sovereignty of the Risen Christ (1:10).
(ii) God manifests to the Apostle a hitherto unrevealed 'mystery': the inclusion of the Gentiles among the eschatological people of God. The apostle, together with the (other) apostles and Christian prophets, proclaim this mystery to the community (3:3f.).
(iii) The apostle lays bare the execution of a 'mystery', hitherto known only to God, but now made known to the heavenly powers through the Church as the manifold wisdom of God (3:9f.). This is probably a reference to the universal reign of Christ that is already beginning.
(iv) In Gen 2:24 a 'mystery' is cloaked. The apostle recognizes its 'real' meaning by making it refer to Christ's relationship to his Church. Hence the scriptures have their own special mysteries (5:32).
(v) The 'mystery of the Gospel' is to be proclaimed 'boldly' by the Apostle. Hence Christians are exhorted to pray for him (6:19). By the 'mystery of the Gospel' is probably meant Christ himself.

This teaching exhibits many contacts with the 'mystery-doctrine' of the Scrolls:

(i) A pattern of common interconnected ideas ('mystery', 'insight', 'wisdom', 'intelligence', 'knowledge', 'revelation', etc.) (ii)The mysteries of salvation were hitherto hidden in God.
(iii)They have special reference to the events of the last days.
(iv)They were revealed to the Teacher of Righteousness, and through him to the community, so that the members, too, now possess this 'knowledge'.
(v) The Scriptures have their own mysteries, which stand in need of interpretation (cf. 1QpHab 7:4f, All the secrets of the words of his servants the prophets') [Quoted in context below in next section ]

However, there are also notable differences:

(i) It is striking that Eph speaks of 'mystery' only in the singular.
(ii) The mystery is unequivocally Christ's eschatological reign, and the incorporation of the Gentiles into the body of the Church.

These differences, especially (ii), are conditioned by the historic Christ-event, of which the sect naturally knew nothing.

It is not possible to affirm direct dependence of Eph on the Scrolls on the basis of the term 'mystery'. The Jewish apocalyptic writers, like the Essenes, spoke of supernatural 'mysteries of God', which are to be revealed at the end of time. Nevertheless there are many points of similarity between the two and their conception of the mystery of God, especially in their formal presentation. Both the Qumran community and the Christian Church are the 'chosen ones' who know the eschatological mysteries of God, though neither knows when the end is to be (cf. 1HQpHab 7:2 'But the consummation of time he did not make known to him').

II. THE BOND BETWEEN THE COMMUNITY AND HEAVEN

1.THE SCROLLS:

(a) 1QS 11:7f.

'To those whom God hath chosen has he given as an eternal possession (=righteousness, power, and the dwelling-place of glory), and has given them an inheritance in the lot of the saints, and hath united their community with the sons of heaven to be a congregation of unitedness and an assembly of the sacred building.'

In all probabiliy the 'saints' are heavenly beings, and not the central nucleus of the faithful on earth; cf. 1QH 3:22 ('host of the saints'); CD 20:8 ('all the saints of the Most High') 1QM 12:1 ('For the legion of the saints is [with thee] in heaven, and the hosts of the angels [are] in thy eternal dwelling place'); 1QM 12:4 ('Together with thy saints [and with] thy angels'), 1QM 12:7 ('And the congregation of thy saints is in the midst of us to be our eternal succour'). It is not possible to ascertain who exactly are meant by the 'saints' in heaven. It may be that they are angels. They could also be the souls of the just (of the Old Testament or the community?) taken up to heaven after their death.

1QH 3.21-23

'And thou hast cleansed the perverse spirit from many sins that he might enter into station with the army of the saints and enter into communion with the sons of heaven. And thou hast cast an everlasting destiny for man in the company of the spirits of knowledge, that he might praise thy name in concord, and recount thy marvels before all thy works.'

The purpose of purifying the perverse spirit in man, presumably through a radical conversion to the Law of Moses and through sacred rites, is 'entry into station with the army of the saints', and 'communion with the sons of heaven'. The expression 'to enter into station" means to 'take one's place', 'to appear'. This has been understood as a reference to life after death and the hope of immortality.[106] In actual fact however, behind this concept in 1QH 3:21-23 lies a priestly tradition, which had a decisive influence on the slf-understanding of the Qumran community: the elect on earth already form a liturgical community with the inhabitants of heaven. Hence the Essenes could say in 1QH 6:13 '...and they (the members of the community) stand in a common lot with the angels of the face'; (cf. also 1QSa 2:8f. 'For holy angels are in their community). The Qumran community felt itself constituted as the true sanctuary of Aaron, in which perfect worship is offered, in place of the Temple in Jerusalem, which in thier eyes had been defiled. J. Maier rightly points out that this belief in the already existent union between the commiunity and heaven worked against a futurist eschatology and in favcour of an eschatology of the present, and that this came to intensify the problem of the duration of the age.

The ultimate purpose of the union between the community and the inhabitants of heaven is, according to 1QH 3:23, the praise of God and his wonderful works. It is therefore, essentially liturgical (cf. 1QH 6:10-14!). Because of its communion with the heavenly world, the community shares in the knowledge of heavonly mysteries.

2. COMPARISON WITH EPHESIANS:

According to the Epistle, both Jews and Gentiles have 'access to the Father' (2:18) in the community of the Church. The context makes it clear that the writer is thinking of an idea, which he will deal with will deal with explicitly later , viz. that the community of the Church is the eschatological temple-sanctuary. Whereas the Gentiles were previously (pole) 'strangers and foreigners', they are now 'fellow-citizens with the saints, members of the household of God. As such, Christians have already become citizens of the heavenly world, and thus at all times have 'access to the Father.'

This perspective greatly clarifies the statement: 'he made us sit with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus' (Eph 2:6). Just as the members of the Qumran community 'enter into station with the army of the saints, through their reception into the 'community of unitedness' (1QH 3.21), so God permits those who have been brought to life through baptism with Christ to join him in the heavenly region in Jesus Christ....

The verbal statements of Eph 2:5f. have their counterparts in 1QH 11.10-12 ('Thou hast purified man from sin... to raise from the dust the worm of the dead... that he may enter into station before you together with the eternal host'), and 1QH 3.19-22 ('Thou hast redeemed my soul from the pit, and from the Sheol of the abyss thou hast made me rise to e everlasting heights... in order that he might enter into station with the army of the saints'). Salvation through grace from (spiritual) death is here understood as an elevation into the company of the inhabitants of heaven. Similarly, behind... Eph 2:6 lies the idea of being raised up into the presence of the risen Christ (compare 2:6 with 1:20). The tradition that underlies Eph 2:6, therefore, is not Gnostic, but closely akin to the theology of the Scrolls.

Indubitably such a doctrine, as with the Hodayoth [1QH] from Qumran, leads away from a futurist eschatology towards an intense awareness of the eschatological character of the present, but the former is by no means rejected in the Epistle. This is not to be looked on as a deviation, or as a 'gnosticizing' tendency, but as a necessary consequence of the Christological and soteriological kerygma of the primitive Church, as is given classical formulation in Col 3:1 'If you then be risen with Christ, seek those things which are above, where Christ sits at the right hand of God.' Because the Church located the central point of its eschatological expectation in the Risen Lord, it had necessarily to adapt its futurist eschatology to one of the present. The heavenly and the terrestrial communities already form a unity and a communion, whose main purpose is 'the praise of his glory', both according to Eph (1:6, 12, 14) and the Essenes (1QH 3:23; 9:14).


THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE QUMRAN TEXTS FOR RESEARCH INTO THE BEGINNINGS OF CHRISTIANITY
- Oscar Cullman[107]

At the outset... I should like to emphasize that we must distinguish between the two questions: Was Jesus an Essene? and, Was there a connection between the Essenes and the first Christians?

It has in fact always been thought, independently of the problem of the Essenes, that primitive Christianity found its origins not in official Judaism but in some more or less esoteric offshoot; this belief does not involve a denial that primitive Christianity added something essentially new, in contrast with its Jewish origins.

In my book on the Pseudo-Clementines, Jewish-Christian writings whose oldest elements (the "Kerygmata Petrou") preserved very early material from primitive Jewish Christianity, I defended the thesis that there existed, on the edge of Judaism, a sort of Jewish Gnosticism, which, judged externally, must be considered the cradle of earliest Christianity.[108]

Since this Jewish Gnosticism already shows Hellenistic influence, we must view the entire question of Hellenism vs. Judaism from a different perspective than has become habitual. In the past, as soon as Hellenistic influences could be shown in a New Testament writing, the immediate conclusion was: this must have been written very late. The Gospel of John is a case in point. Since Hellenistic elements are found in the Gospel, it was believed that a very late origin was proved. Behind this false conclusion stood a false, or at least too schematic, conception of the origin of Christianity; namely, the idea that at first Christianity was merely Jewish, and then later became Hellenistic. This basic error led to a series of further errors, such as the supposition that the so-called Gnostic heresy first sprang up late, in Hellenistic circles outside Palestine. The fact that Gnosticism, where we first encounter it in the New Testament, is closely connected with Judaism proves that this conception of Gnosticism is erroneous. There was a Jewish Gnosticism before there was a Christian Gnosticism, as there was a Jewish Hellenism before there was a Christian Hellenism.

The evolution which one generally supposes from an early narrow Judaistic Christianity to a later universalistic Hellenistic Christianity is an artificial schema, which does not correspond to historical reality. We shall see that both tendencies existed in the primitive church, and the history of primitive Christianity is the history of the interplay of these two tendencies, both of them present from the beginning in the Palestinian church…

If we wish to compare the thought of the two groups [Essenes and Early Christians], we must turn particularly to the Gospel of John. From the start it has been observed that more than the other New Testament writings, this Gospel belongs to an ideological atmosphere most closely related to that of the new texts.[109] The Johannine dualism of Light and Darkness, Life and Death, has its parallel in the Qumran texts. Corresponding to the Prologue of the Gospel, we have the passage in 1 QS (xi, 11) where the divine thought appears as mediator of creation. K. G. Kuhn has rightly concluded that the body of thought of the Qumran sect is, so to speak, the earth in which the Fourth Gospel plunges its roots.[110] Clearly, there will again be highly significant differences right at this point concerning the central position of Christ. All along the line we must insist on both the essential relatedness and the essential differences.

This applies as well to the teachings of Jesus as we find them in the Synoptic Gospels. There are many points of contact. The understanding of sin and grace in the new texts is not that of the Pharisees, but rather very near that of the New Testament. Actually, there are in the Rule (1 QS) similarities to the Sermon on the Mount.

The criticism of the Temple expressed by Jesus in the Synoptics (stated in even stronger form in John) corresponds to the Essenes' attitude toward the Jewish Temple and sacrificial worshlp....[111]

We find clear lines of relatedness to Pauline thought. Again it is the anti-Pharisaism of their theology which in a certain sense fits into the doctrine of justification. In the Habakkuk Commentary, a sectarian writing from Qumran, we note a passage relating justification to the Teacher of Righteousness [an important leader or even founder of the sect] in a way almost exactly equivalent to a decisive Pauline text. The well-known words of Habakkuk, "the just shall live by faith," is explained: "that means, he shall live by faith in the Teacher of Righteousness." Of course, we must point out at the same time the differences: this faith in the Teacher of Righteousness is not, as for Paul, faith in an act of atonement accomplished in the death of Christ for the forgiveness of sins. In fact, the concept of faith itself is different, containing nothing of the sense of I opposition to the works of the law. The ethical or so-called paraenetic parts of Paul's epistles and other early Christian writings present the most striking parallels with analogous developments in the new texts....

There is one possible way to conceive of Essene thought and practice as having found entry into the beginnings of Christianity through John the Baptist. We know from the Gospel of John that the first disciples of Jesus had previously been disciples of John the Baptist. Jesus himself seems to have first been a disciple of John. Not all the disciples of John subsequently went over to Jesus. We learn from the Synoptic Gospels that during the ministry of Jesus there still existed a group of disciples of John. Early Christian literature tells us further that after the death of Christ this baptist sect was in many ways a sort of rival of the primitive church. (See especially Ps.-Clem. Rec. 1:54-60) The later Mandean writings certainly contain much old material going back to this sect, which after the death of Jesus, continued to consider John the Baptist as the true messiah, and to refuse so to recognize Jesus. (in fact fact, they declared him to be a false Messiah)....

It is true that there existed a fellowship of disciples of John before there was a fellowship of disciples of Jesus, and that, according to the Fourth Gospel, Jesus and his first disciples came from this baptist movement. The anonymous disciple in Jn 1 is a former disciple of the Baptist. In Mt. 11:11 Truly, I say to you, among those born of women there has risen no one greater than John the Baptist; yet he who is least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he. (RSV)Jesus considers himself as a disciple of John....

Thus, If a connection between the Essenes and the disciples of John could really be established, we would have at the same time a link between the Essenes and the followers of Jesus. Such a direct connection, however, cannot be proved with certainty....

It seems to me much more probable that a bridge between the Essenes and the early Christians is to be found in the Hellenists who are mentioned in the Book of Acts, and this is the particular hypothesis I shall try to establish in this article. May not these Hellenists be the more direct link which we seek? They belonged to the original Palestinian church from the beginning; they are thus not a result of the Diaspora. They must have played a far greater role in the beginnings of Christianity than is immediately apparent from Acts. They were in fact the real founders of Christian missions, in that in the persecution following the death of Stephen (which they and not the Twelve suffered) they began to preach the gospel in Sarnaria. Universality was not introduced into Christianity first by Paul but by the Hellenists before him, of whom we know well only Stephen, who must have been an exceptional personality.

These Hellenists, like the Essenes, rejected Temple worship and for that reason were expelled from Jerusalem very early. The twelve were apparently not in agreement with their rejection of Temple worship; otherwise we could not explain how they were " able to remain in Jerusalem after the outbreak of the persecution reported in Acts 8:1. And on that day a great persecution arose against the church in Jerusalem; and they were all scattered throughout the region of Judea and Samar′ia, except the apostles. (RSV)

The Hellenists were soon left on the sidelines, and disappear from the Book of Acts. We find them again only in Acts 9:28-30, So he [Paul} went in and out among them at Jerusalem, 29 preaching boldly in the name of the Lord. And he spoke and disputed against the Hellenists; but they were seeking to kill him. 30 And when the brethren knew it, they brought him down to Caesare′a, and sent him off to Tarsus. (RSV)where we learn that Paul debated with them, and in Acts 11:19-21, Now those who were scattered because of the persecution that arose over Stephen traveled as far as Phoeni′cia and Cyprus and Antioch, speaking the word to none except Jews. 20 But there were some of them, men of Cyprus and Cyre′ne, who on coming to Antioch spoke to the Greeks[Other ancient authorities read Hellenists] also, preaching the Lord Jesus. 21 And the hand of the Lord was with them, and a great number that believed turned to the Lord. (RSV)where we read that the Hellenists from Cyprus and Cyrene addressed themselves to the Hellenists in Antioch. The other Christian documents do not mention them, at least not directly, probably because the oldest Christian writings (besides the Johannine group) are based not on their witness but on that of the twelve.

Generally, the "Hellenists" of Acts 6:1 Now in these days when the disciples were increasing in number, the Hellenists murmured against the Hebrews because their widows were neglected in the daily distribution.
(RSV)
are considered simply as Jews who spoke Greek, the "Hebrews" being Jews who spoke Aramaic. However, we have no evidence in any document for this meaning of the word. The Greek word from which "Hellenist" is derived (hellenizein) does not mean "to speak Greek" but "to live according to the Greek manner." Nor does the term indicate that they came from the Diaspora. Barnabas, who is a Cyprian, is not called a "Hellenist"; neither is Paul, nor are others. The embarrassment of the scholars who try to define the precise character of these Hellenists in Acts 6-8 may be seen in the Additional Notes of Foakes-Jackson and Kirsopp Lake, The Beginnings of Christianity,[112] which deals with this problem. Whatever one says, it cannot be proved that "Hebrews" refers to the language spoken by the people designated by this word. The question arises then whether these Hellenists are not Jews who differ from the official Judaism, showing tendencies, more or less esoteric, of a syncretistic origin. What other expression did the , Jews have at their disposal to describe this tendency?

I have shown elsewhere[113] that the Gospel of John is particularly interested in these Hellenists and their pioneer missionary work in Samaria. In fact, this Gospel even undertakes a rehabilitation of the Hellenists. I cannot repeat the whole argument here, but can only give the conclusions which seem to me very relevant for our discussion. In John 4:38 I sent you to reap that for which you did not labor; others have labored, and you have entered into their labor. (RSV) Jesus says that not the apostles but "others" will begin the mission to Samaria” and that the apostles will then "enter into" the results of their work”. This corresponds exactly to the report in Acts 8. This passage tells us that the mission in Samaria was inaugurated by the Hellenists, especially by Philip, one of the seven (who probably played the same role among the Hellenists as did the Twelve in the other part of the community). According to Acts 8:14-17, Now when the apostles at Jerusalem heard that Samar′ia had received the word of God, they sent to them Peter and John, 15 who came down and prayed for them that they might receive the Holy Spirit; 16 for it had not yet fallen on any of them, but they had only been baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. 17 Then they laid their hands on them and they received the Holy Spirit.
(RSV)
after the conversion of the Samaritans, the Twelve sent Peter and John to Samaria, who, so to speak, completed their conversion by the laying on of hands; thus they really "entered" into the work of "others." The "others" in John 4:38 must then be these Hellenists, most of whom are anonymous. They were the true missionaries to Samaria.

Very often Luke and the Fourth Gospel report analogous traditions. Therefore, it is not surprising that the Johannine Gospel also follows in this respect the Lucan tradition concerning the link between the Hellenists and Samaria, although its importance is minimized in the Book of Acts.

It is certainly no accident that we find in John's Gospel a special interest in the Hellenists. We have already seen that this Gospel seems to have some connection with the sect of John the Baptist which it seeks to combat. We add now that it must have been formed from circles which, to say the least, were close to the Hellenists. Perhaps we may even dare to say more: might not the writer himself have belonged to the Hellenists within the early church?

Now we have already seen that, of all the early Christian writings, it is precisely the Gospel of John which shows the closest relationship to the Qumran texts. K. G. Kuhn came to this conclusion immediately after the first discoveries of the Dead Sea Scrolls. On the other hand, we have known for a long time that the Fourth Gospel seems to be connected with other esoteric Jewish writings, such as the Odes of Solomon and rabbinical texts of a mystical character.[114] We conclude that there is, first, a relationship between the Fourth Gospel and the Hellenists; second, a relationship between the Fourth Gospel and the Qumran sect. We still need to find an essential and characteristic point common simultaneously to the Qumran sect, the Hellenists, and the Fourth Gospel. We have already touched on this point: the opposition to Temple worship. This is the main known characteristic of the Hellenists and the reason for Stephen's martyrdom....

The relationship between the thought of the Essenes and the Christian Hellenists and that of John's Gospel permits us to suppose that the group called "Hellenists" in the early Jerusalem church was in some way in contact with the kind of Judaism we find in the Qumran texts, as well as in the related books of Enoch, the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, and the Odes of Solomon, which also belong to the Qumran pattern. I do not assert that these Hellenists were former Essenes (which is not impossible) but that they come from a kind of Judaism close to this group. It seems to me especially important that the author of the Book of Acts mentions precisely in chap. 6, which speaks of the Hellenists, the numerous "priests" who joined the church (v.7). We know that members of the Qumran sect were priests If there is a connection: Essenes, Christian Hellenists, Fourth Gospel, we can better understand how we find, already in the New Testament, two such different forms of Christianity as those portrayed by the Synoptic and Johannine Gospels. For it is no longer possible to consider the Johannine form as later and not Palestinian, simply for the reason that it is farther from normative Judaism than the Synoptics. I repeat: both forms of Christianity existed from the beginning, because both found their roots in forms of Judaism present in Palestine. If we know the main-line Jewish better, it is only because the other was rather esoteric in its leanings. The Hellenists were apparently the most vital and interesting part of the early Jerusalem church.

Next we may ask: Can we follow this same line beyond the early church, back into the time of Jesus himself? We can hardly suppose that there were in Palestine Hellenists, confessing Christ only after his death. Since they belonged to the church from the very beginning, we must assume that at least a number of them followed Jesus during his lifetime.


BUDDHISM AND GNOSIS
- excerpts from a paper by Edward Conze[115]

Now I will describe the eight basic similarities between Gnosis and Mahayana Buddhism[116]:

1
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(a) Salvation takes place through gnosis or jnana, and nothing else can finally achieve it. Both words are etymologically derived from the same Indo-European root. Their meaning also is quite similar. "Not Baptism alone sets us free, but gnosis, - who we were, what we have become; where we were, whereinto we have been thrown; whither we hasten, whence we are redeemed; what is birth and what rebirth, - so the Excerpta ex Theodoto (78:2). [A Valentinian Gnostic writing] Buddhism in its turn claims that the cognition of conditioned co-production, [more commonly known as the doctrine of dependent origination] which the Buddha attained shortly before his enlightenment, dispels all misconceptions on precisely the points enumerated in the Valentinian statement.[117] In both cases the mere insight into the origination and nature of the world liberates us from it, and effects some kind of re-union with the transcendental One, which is identical with our true Self.

 
 
 
(b) As a negative corollary to this, Buddhism teaches that ignorance (avidya) is the root evil and the starting point of the chain of causation ...Likewise some, though not perhaps all, Gnostic systems explicitly declare ignorance to be the basic fault which has alienated us from true reality The Valentinian Gospel of Truth ascribes creation to Error personified.

 
(c) This gnostic knowledge is derived solely from revelation, although each one has to experience it within himself.
2
 
We secondly consider the teaching concerning the levels of spiritual attainment.

 
(a) There is a very sharp division between the aristocracy of the perfecti or Elect, and the ordinary run of the auditores. To it corresponds in Buddhism that between the aryas ('holy' or 'noble' men) and the "foolish common people" (balaprthagiana), who occupy two distinct planes of existence, respectively known as the "wordly" and the "supramundane". Ordinary people are entirely absorbed in the pursuit of sensory objects, or the flight from them, while the saints have undergone a spiritual rebirth, have turned away from this world to the world of the spirit, and have won sufficient detachment from conditioned things to effectively turn to the Path which leads to Nirvana.

 
(b) There is a qualitative difference between the highest ranks of the spiritually awakened and the ordinary run of mankind. They have attained a positively superhuman stature and no common bond of humanity units them with the rest of us. They have conquered death and become immortal; they have become divine, equal to God, and deserve to be worshipped; the Tathagatas are absolutely pure, completely omniscient, and omnipresent. The process of salvation is based on the kinship (syngeneia) of savior and saved, because both have a divine origin. The doctrine of the divine spark, which is our true Self, is indeed fundamental in both systems. For the Mahayana the intimate essence of man's being is "the celestial nature itself, purest light, bodhicittam prakrtiprabhasvaram."[118] In salvation the god within has united with the god outside.[119]
3
 
 
Our third point concerns the crucial role which Wisdom plays in both systems. We will consider wisdom under three headings, (a) as a kind of archetype, (b) in her cosmogenic function, and (c) as a feminine deity.

 
(a) As to the first, I may well be said to be stretching a point by introducing some of the "Wisdom Books" of the Old Testament. But they obviously belong to the same religious complex, and were the work of the immediate predecessors of the Gnostics as well as a source of inspiration to many of them. It seems to me remarkable that during the same period of time, - i.e. from ca 200 B.C. onwards, - two distinct civilizations, one in the Mediterranean, the other in India, should have constructed a closely analogous set of ideas concerning "Wisdom", each one apparently independently, from its own cultural antecedents. Here are some of the similarities between Chochma and Sophia on the one side and the Prajnaparamita on the other: Both are feminine, and called 'mothers' and 'nurses'. They are equated with the Law (Tora and Dharma), have existed from all times, are the equivalent of God or the Buddha, the Consort of Jahve or Vajradhara, extremely elusive, respectively a gift of God or due to the Buddha's might, dispense the waters of knowledge and the food of life, are extremely pure, related to the sky or ether, connected with trees and compared to light. We are urged to "lean on" them and to accept their chastisement. They are vitally important to kings and will disappear in the chaos of the last days.

 
(b) The cosmogenic function of Sophia is quite pronounced in many Gnostic systems. Until a few years ago every Buddhist scholar would have asserted categorically that Prajna (even in a debased or fallen form, if such a thing were conceivable) could not possibly have anything to do with the creation of the world, being entirely occupied with its removal. Then in 1959 we had the first critical edition of a Buddhist Tantra, and there, in the Hevajra Tantra, we unmistakably read that "Prajna is called Mother, because she gives birth to the world."

 
(c) Perhaps the most radical innovation of the Mahayana was the introduction of feminine deities. As usual, the dates are none too certain, but by A.D. 400 female deities, among them the Prajnaparamita, were definite cult objects. Much earlier the Prajnaparamita had been proclaimed as the Mother of the Buddhas.[120 ]
4
 
Both Mahayana and Gnostics are indifferent to historical facts and tend to replace them with myths. This shows itself in at least two ways:

(a) A docetic interpretation of the Founder's life

 
(b) The scriptural tradition is authenticated by reference to persons and events which have often no clearly defined place within the framework of observable and verifiable human history, and their initial revelation normally takes place neither on earth nor among men, and often at the beginning of time. The Pistis Sophia is the teaching of the Risen Christ, another text is ascribed to "Poimandres, the Nous [mind] of the Absolute Power",[121] the Manichean Kephalaia have been revealed by "the Living Paraclete"[122] (Jonas, 208) and the Hermetic tradition dates back to Hermes Trismegistos who is identified with Thoth. Just so all Mahayana scriptures were inspired and compiled by mythological personages, such as Maitreya, Amitabha, Avalokitesvara, or Manjusri.[123] The lineage of the Guhyasamaja, for instance, gives first the Buddha Vajradhara and the Bodhisattva Vajrapani, and only then a number of historical names.[124] The Hermetists were in the habit of unearthing books hidden away by godlike sages in the remote past (exemasteuse is the technical term), and likewise the Tibetan Nyingmapas and Kahgyutpas put their faith in the gter-ma, or buried texts, which were hidden by Buddhas or Saints (esp. Padmasambhava) and later on recovered by predestined persons, often with the help of the dakinis, or 'sky-walkers'.[125] [female spirits]
5 A tendency towards antinomianism is inherent in both systems…
6













As distinct from the theistic religions, both Mahayana and Gnosis differentiate between the still and quiescent Godhead, and the active creator god, who is placed at a lower level. Of the first, the Hermetists said that "of him no words can tell, no tongue can speak, silence only can declare Him."[126] And so the Buddhists on countless occasions about the Absolute which they identified with Nirvana, the Buddha, the Realm of Dharma, Suchness, etc. The demiurge, in his turn, is a secondary divine being who, himself a proud, ambitious and impure spirit, has created this most unsatisfactory world.[127] His Buddhist counterpart is to some extent the Hindu god Brahma who in his stupidity boasts about having created this cosmos,[128] when in fact it is the automatic product of cycles of evolution and involution going on over the ages. But however the world may have come about, at present it is, in any case, the domain of an evil force, of Satan or of Mara the Evil One.[129]
7


Both systems despise easy popularity, and their writings aim at initiates and exclude the multitude. In consequence there is everywhere a predilection for the mysterious, the secret, the enigmatic, the hidden, the esoteric…
8



Last, but not least, both systems adopted a metaphysics which is monistic in the sense that it enjoins an intellectual, emotional and volitional revulsion from multiple things, and advocates, more or less explicitly, a re-union with a One which transcends the multiple world.[130]

Making allowance for the differences, I still think that the similarities between Gnosticism and Mahayana Buddhism are remarkably close, and do not concern only fortuitous details, but the essential structure itself.

Here are a few more apparent and at least possible similarities:

  • both systems are fond of Serpents (nagas) as being connected with wisdom (Jonas, 93-5, 228)
  • both hold astrology in high esteem (Jonas, 157, 254-65); the principal Buddhist literary source is the late Kalacakratantra, but the actual practices are almost universal in Buddhist countries
  • both rely on the power of secret formulas, mantras or spells
  • both place great emphasis on Light (phos and aloka)
  • both show a tendency towards syncretism, borrow from ancient mythologies and revive the most archaic ideas…
  • in both the perfect can demonstrate their high degree of spirituality by the display of wonderworking powers; there is indeed a close affinity between some of the later Neoplatonists, such as Proclus, and the later Tantric professors at Nalanda University in the 8th century, in that both combine (1) a sober and perfectly rational philosophical dialectic with (2) a yearning for union with the One and (3) a cultivation of magical prowess of various kinds
  • the Gnostics attach importance to "Seals" (Jonas, 119- 20), and in later Buddhism the term mudra is increasingly used
  • some sub-sects give allegience to persons violently repudiated by the main tradition, e.g. to Cain (Jonas, 95) and Devadatta
  • both show a fondness for sexual imagery
  • salvation is likened to an "awakening" (Jonas, 80 sq.), and in consequence there is a tendency to regard this world, as it appears, as a dream (Jonas, 70), wholly unsubstantial (Jonas, 84) and "a Nothing" (Jonas, l84n.)
  • there is also a striking similarity between some of the similes used as well as the conclusions drawn from them. One may compare: "As gold sunk in filth will not lose its beauty but preserve its own nature, and the filth will be unable to impair the gold, etc.,[131] with Ratnagotravibhaga: "Supposing that gold belonging to a man on his travels had fallen into a place full of stinking dirt. As it is indestructible by nature, it would stay there for many hundreds of years", etc. up to verse 110,[132] - and in both cases this is a simile for the divine spark in man.[133]

 

 

Image in header: Gnostic Cross from the Bruce Codex

2
1
 
 
From The Scrolls and the New Testament, edited by Krister Stendahl, New York, The Crossroads Publishing Company, Copyright 1967 Krister Stendahl, pp. 33-53.
2 Josephus Ant 18, 1, 5. The translation is that of William Whiston.
3 Harv. Theol. Rev. 46 (1953), p. 155.
4
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Precisely this is said of Cornelius' household in Acts 10:47f., when interpreted in the light of Acts 15:8f. In a kind letter from J. Jeremias of Gottingen (dated 10/25/1955), I have received the keen and important query as to whether Josephus may have been influenced by his first-hand knowledge of Essenism and simply attributed Essene teaching to John the Baptist. See here the life of Josephus, chapter 10 f., from which it is apparent that Josephus spent three years (beginning when he was 16 years old) making trial of Pharisaism, Sadduceeism, Essenism, and the life of a hermit with Banus (perhaps only three months with this man, certainly not three years!). It is apparent that Josephus could never have been more than a novitiate among the Essenes, but long enough to have aquired accurate information concerning their basic tenets and rules of discipline. Jeremias suggestion represents a real (though unprovable) possibility and is certainly a reasonable caution. Though Josephus was born after the death of John, he would have hade many opportunities in the normal concourse of Palestinian life to have familiarized himself with the still living first generation of the baptist movement and to have received accurate information concerning its baptismal faith. Hence we have no reason to question the substantial accuracy of Josephus' description of John's baptism, though one may entertain the possibility of some Essene coloring in his portrayal. In view of this assumption, Jn. 3:25 may assume greater significance.
5 C. H. Kraeling, John the Baptist (1951). p. 117
6 Translation by A. Dupont-Sommer, The Dead Sea Scrolls 1952, p. 73.
7
 
 
This and other quotations from the Pseudepigrapha, so-called, are from R. H. Charles, Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, vol. II
8
 
 
See my article, "Messianic Motifs of Qumran and the New Testament," New Testament Studies, 3 (1956/57), pp. 12-30, to be continued in fasc. 3.
9
 
 
 
In his unpublished Ph.D. thesis, An Ancient Sectarian Interpretation of the Old Testament Prophets: A Study in the Qumran Scrolls and the Damascus Fragments (1955), pp. 32-61. The passage cited above is 1QH 8:10f.
10
 
 
 
From The Scrolls and the New Testament edited by Krister Stendahl and James H. Charlesworth, Crossroads Publishing Company, New York 1972 pp. 118-128.
- translated from Theologische Quartalschrift 135 (1955), pp. 320-37.
11
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cf. K. Schubert, Zeitschr. f. kath. Theol. 74 (1952), pp. 31-37. To reiterate, I do not hold [as G. Molin, Judaica 7 (1951), pp. 210f.; and Die Sohne des Lichtes (1954), p. 221] both sects to be fully identical. The term "Essenism" must not be made too narrow. It probably was much more of a group of sects with several patterns of doctrine varying somewhat among themselves than a sharply determined and delineated community. In this sense we can also understand Josephus, Bell. 2, 8, 13, and Hippolytus, Adv. hear. 10, 26. I therefore maintaint that if one disregards all those characteristics peculiar to Qumran (e.g., the Teacher of Righteousness), the pattern of teaching of the Qumran texts, above all of 1QS, can be used to complement the picture which Josephus, Philo, and Pliny give us of the Essenes. On the other hand, one must be careful not to expand the Qumran material on the basis of the ancient sources about the Essenes. There is however, the further question of how the peasants and hand workers of Galilee came to know the Essene teachings. On the basis of 1QS 8:12-14, I have already pointed to the possible connection with John the Baptist (op. cit., p.31). In the meantime this suspicion has become more substantial in my sight. In another place I hope to treat it and the manner of the intellectual contact between the Judaic Essenes and the Gallilean Zealots in a more thorough-going fashion.
12
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The so-called War Scroll also belongs to the realm of eschatological bellicosity. Cf. also Enoch 91:12. Elsewhere I hope to treat the relationship between the Ten Week Acocalypse and the Qumran literature. (Cf. further Enoch 95:3-7; 96:1; 98:12). For the motive of hatred for ememies is yet clearer in 3:5f. "And upon the trumpets of their columns they inscribe, 'The strength of God,' in order to scatter the eneny and to put to flight all those who hate justice and those who show mercy to them that hate God." The motif which dominates the whole of 1QM is the militant eschatological zeal against the enemies of God. The vengeance of God is executed by the members of the community. See particularly 3:6, 8, 9; 3:3' 11-14; 6:3, 5, 6. The members of the community refer to themselves as the "called of God," e.g., 3:2; 4:10f.
13 Strack-Billerbeck vol. 1 p. 190.
14
 
 
 
 
 
Cf. 1QS 1:11f., 6:19f., with Bell. 2, 8, 3; further see 1QS 5:16, 20; 1QpHab 8:10-12; 9:5f.,; cf. CD 8:17; 9:21, 23; 13:5, 25. The term "poor in spirit," "poor with inner agreement," is found also in 1QM 14:7; cf. for this - and for the Qumran studies at large - Dr. Flusser's provocative article, "The Sect in the Judean Desert and its Ideas" (in modern Hebrew) Zion 19 (1955), pp. 89-103, esp. p. 93.
15
 
The problems of this passage are admirably handled by K. Elliger, Studien zum Habakuk-Kommentar vom Toten Meer (1953), pp. 221ff.
16 1QH 2:32.
17 Cf. Schubert, op. cit., pp. 27f.
18
 
The question is to what extent the teachings of Mt. 5 belonged to the original Sermon on the Mount may be left untouched here.
19 In this meaning the word "prophet" e.g., in Mt. 23:34.
20 Ant. 15, 10, 5.
21
 
 
Cf. P. Riessler, Altjudisches Schriftium ausserhalb der Bibel (1928), p. 1300. K. Galling, Orient. Lit. Zeit. 33 (1930), puts the date of the Jewish layer of Asc. Is. in the secend century B.C.
22
 
 
 
Flusser in Bull. of the Isr. Expl. Soc. 17 (1952), pp. 28-46; also Isr. Expl. Journ. 3 (1953), pp. 30-47; the Teacher of Righteousness was in fact mercilessly persecuted and fought by the Priest of Wickedness, as is apparent from the allusions of 1QpHab, e.g., 11:4-6.
23
 
 
 
 
If Flusser's identification is retained, this passage would indicate the martyrdom of the Teacher of Righteousness. The decisive passage in CD does not give unambiguous evidences for this, although it leaves the possibility open; Schubert, Zeitschr. f. kath. Theol. 74 (1952), p. 25.
24
 
The problem of the related passages Mt. 23:29-37 and Lk. 11:47-51 cannot be discussed here; cf. 2 Chron. 24:20-22.
25
 
 
Cf. my discussion of the concepts "man of lies" and "men of violence" in Zeitschr. f. kath. Theol. 74 (1952), p. 16., and Theol. Lit. Zeit. 77 (1952), cols. 334f.
26 Bell. 2, 8, 6; cf. Ant. 15, 10, 4.
27 An interesting parallel is offered in Shebouth 4, 13 (352).
28 So with G. Molin, op. cit., p. 32.
29
 
 
 
This is not intended as an argument concerning the literary conception of the Sermon on the Mount, as found in Matthew. Nevertheless, it is remarkable that the Essene parallels are found almost exclusively in Mt. 5.
30
 
The same negative attitude toward money is found in Enoch 63:10 and even more in 94:7-8.
31
 
 
 
 
 
Charlesworth, James H: "A Critical Comparison of the Dualism in 1QS 3:13-4:26 and the 'Dualism' Contained in the Gospel of John" in John and Qumran (ed. James H. Charlesworth; London: Geoffrey Chapman Publishers, 1972), 100-03. Paper originally published in New Testament Studies 15 (1968-69), 389-418. Copyright permission courtesy of Cambridge University Press.
32
 
 
 
 
 
 
P. Benoit argues that the technical terms "sons of light" and Sons of darkness" was coined by the Teacher of Righteousness, that Paul's expressions are closely parallel to the light-versus-darkness paradigm found in 1QS, and that John's connection is even closer; see "Qumran et le Nouveau Testament"' New Testament Studies 7 (1960-61), 276-96, especially 289-90; English Translation in Paul and Qumran, ed. J. Murphy-O'Conner, O.P. (London, Chicago, 1968) 1-30.
33
 
 
 
 
 
The expression is found in only two other New Testament passages: "for all of you are sons of light and sons of the day" (1 Th 5:5); "the sons of light" (Lk 16:8). The first is not found in a context which is similiar to the mythology of 1QS but can be explained as resulting from Paul's imagery of the dawning eschatological day. The second is particularly non-Lucan and appears to belong to his sources.
34
 
 
 
 
D. Flusser argues there must be some connection between early Christianity and Qumran because in Pauline and Johannine theology the question of predestination is presented within a dualistic framework; see "The Dead Sea Sect and Pre-Pauline Christianity", 4 (1958) Scripta Hierosolymitana 220.
35
 
From John and Qumran edited by James H. Charlesworth, Geoffrey Chapman, London 1972 pp. 156-165.
36
 
Cf. R. de Vaux, "La Grotte des Manuscrits Hebreux", Revue Biblique 56 (1949) 605.
37
 
 
 
 
 
The expression is found in only two other New Testament passages: "for all of you who are sons of light and sons of (the) day" (1 Thess 5:5); "the sons of light" (Lk 16:8). The first is not found in a context which is similar to the mythology of 1QS, but can be explained as resulting from Paul's imagery of the dawning eschatological day. The second is peculiarly non-Lucan and appears to belong to his sources.
38
 
 
 
From Paul and the Dead Sea Scrolls edited by J. Murphy O'Connor and James H. Charlesworth Copyright 1990 by The Crossroads Publishing Company. pp. 179-230. Reprinted with permission.
Originally published in Revue Biblique 72 (1965), pp. 29-79.
39
 
 
 
'"Wahrheit" als theologischer Terminus in den Qumran-texten' in Festschrift Viktor Christian, K. Schubert, Wien, 1956, pp. 83-92. This study is reprinted in F. Notscher, Vom Alten zum Neuen Testament, Bonn, 1962, pp. 112-25.
40
 
 
 
 
Except for slight modifications in detail the following translations have been used. For 1QS: P. Wernberg-Moller, The Manual of Discipline, Leiden, 1957. For 1QH: S. Holm-Nielson, Hodayot-Psalms from Qumran, Aarhus, 1960. For CD, 1QM, and 1QpHab: A. Dupont-Sommer.
41 Theologisches Worterbuch zum Neuen Testament) vol. I, p. 239.
42
 
Aletheia is commonly derived from a (privative) = "not' and lath (the root of lanthanein) = 'to be hidden'. Hence 'not-hidden'.
43




 
Aletheia hovers between these two meanings in Philo. Dodd, however, notes that it is hard to find passages where the word clearly has the sense of 'reality' as distinct from the apprehension of reality. He does point to De Mgr. Abr., 190, where the mind is said to gaze upon aletheia as in a mirror, abandoning all phantasiai of the senses, cf. The Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel, Cambridge, 1960, p. 173.
44
 
The Ancient Library of Qumran and Modern Biblical Studies, New York, 1958, Ch. 3, esp. pp. 116-7.
45 Op. cit., p. 96.
46
 
Cf. O. Betz, Offenbarung und Schriftforschung in der Qumransekte, Tubingen, 1960, p. 56.
47
 
Through the Jews the light of the Law was to be mediated to the nations; Is 2:3, 5; Wis 18:4; Josephus,Contra Apion, 2, 41.
48
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
In NT times torah in its widest meaning was used as a collective designation for the whole of the authoritative tradition, not merely that codified in sacred scripture, but also that which was carried forward orally. The whole of the oral tradition did not originate as scripture interpretation, but that did not prevent the rabbis from seeing (in principle) the oral torah as the interpretation of the written torah. Cf. B. Gerhardsson, Memory and Manuscript. Oral tradition and Written Transmission in Rabbinic Judaism and Early Christianity, Uppsala, 1961, pp. 19-21, 82; also G. F. Moore, Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era, vol. I, Cambridge, 1927, pp. 253-5.
49 Cf. 1 Tim 1:10-11; 6:3; Tit 1:9; 2:1,8; 2 Tim 2:13.
50 
 
Cf. R. Brown, 'The Semitic Background of the NT Mysterion', Biblica 40 (1959), p. 81, n. 1; P. Benoit, 'Qumran and the New Testament'
51 
 
 
In Ps 119(118):43 it is one of the synonyms for the Law. The plural is found in Prov 22:21 and Eccl 12:10, with the rather wide meaning of 'wisdom'.
52 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The corresponding passage in Col reads 'Do not lie to one another' (3:9). The writer of Ephesians, in adding the citation from Zech, has deliberately grafted the theme of truth on to an idea from Col. This assumes new significance when we recollect that for the Essenes veracity was one of the most essential virtues. Commenting on 1QS 10:22, Dupont-Sommer cites Josephus, Jewish War, II,Sec135: 'Every word they speak is stronger than an oath', and Sec 141: 'He swears always to love truth and persecute liars' (The Essene Writings from Qumran, tr. G. Vermes, Cleveland, 1962, p. 100, n.4).
53 
 
 
 
 
 
Cf. P. Benoit, 'Qumran and the New Testament' Paul and the Dead Sea Scrolls Eds. J. Murphy O'Connor & James H. Charlesworth The Crossroad Puplishing Co. New York 1990 p.17. For details of the authors who see the influence of Qumran in these passages, cf. H. Braun, 'Qumran und das Neue Testament. Ein Bericht uber 10 Jahre Forschung (1950-1959)', TRu 29 (1963), pp. 239, 242.
54 Die Sohne des Lichtes, Wien/Munchen, 1954, p. 179
55 
 
 
'The Epistle to the Ephesians in the Light of the Qumran Texts', Paul and the Dead Sea Scrolls Eds. J. Murphy O'Connor & James H. Charlesworth The Crossroad Puplishing Co. New York 1990 p. 121-6.
56 
 
 
 
That is, the immediate source of this doctrine in Eph is the teaching of the Essenes. The closest O.T. parallel to Eph 5:9 is not Mic 6:8, as Kuhn suggests, but 2 Chron 31:20: 'He did what was good (twb) and right (ysr) and true ('mt) before Yahweh.' Cf. also Jer 4:2; Ps 45(44):5.
57 
 
 
 
 
Kuhn (below) notes that the phrase 'in the strength of his might' which occurs at the beginning of this section finds a parallel at Qumran: 'the might of his power' (1QH 4:32), 'the strength of his might' 1QH 18:8). The same author sketches the background to this passage in TWNT, vol. V. pp. 297-300.
58 
 
 
 
See Joachim Gnilka 2 Cor 6:14 - 7:1 in the Light of the Qumran texts and the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs in Paul and the Dead Sea Scrolls, eds. J. Murphy O'Connor and James H. Charlesworth; Crossroads, New York 1990 pp. 48- 68.
59 
 
 
 
The expression appears only in the Pastorals, but Dupont's suggestion that it underlies the ten charin tou theou en aletheia of Col 1:6 is quite plausible (Gnosis, La connaissance religieuse selon S. Paul, Paris, 1949, p. 12, n. 1).
60 R. Bultmann, TWNT, vol 1, p. 706, n. 70.
61 Gnosis, pp. 9-10.
62
 
J. Carmignac - P. Guilbert, Les Textes de Qumran, vol. I, Paris, 1961, p. 60.
63
 
 
 
 
Line 19 of the passage under consideration impresses on new members that 'this is the time for leveling the way towards the wilderness,. This is a clear allusion to 1QS 8:13-14, where Is 40:3 ('In the wilderness prepare the way of... [=Yahweh]') is applied to the community precisely as a depository of revelation (8:15-16).
64
9:2; 18:25-26; 19:9, 23; 22:4; 24:14, 22.
65
 
 
 
For 'covenant' in this sense, see 1QS 5:19, which identifies 'those who know not his covenant' with 'those who despise his word' (cf. 1QH 15:15). Note the same parallelism in 1QH 4:34-35: 'the wicked arose against thy covenant and the wretched against thy word'.
66
 
Cf. J. Licht, 'An Analysis of the Treatise on the Two Spirits in DSD', Scripta Hierosolymitana 4 (1958), p. 89.
67
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The view of predestination expressed in the Treatise is due to outside influence, presumably Zoroastrianism (cf. K. G. Kuhn, 'Die Sektenschrift und die Iranische Religion', ZTK 49 (1952), pp. 296-316) and is not reconciled with the O.T. view of man as freely meriting reward or punishment, which from time to time shows through in the writings of the sect. The inconsistency to which this can lead is clear in the case of apostacy. According to 1QS 7:23-24, apostacy is the unforgivable sin, but CD 20:4-5 presupposes the possibility of re-admission to the community, and 1QS 7:18-19 makes provision for just such an eventuality by determining the penance to be imposed.
68 Cf. 1QS 1:3, 9-10; 2:5-10; 8:6-7; 9:16-17.
69 Die Pastoralbriefe, Tubingen, 1955, p. 49.
70 Mwsd occurs only once more: 'the foundations of the mountains' (1QH 17:13).
71 In the singular: 1QS 8:5; in the plural 1QSa (=28a) 1:12.
72 In the singular: 1QS 7:17-18; 8:10; in the plural: CD 10:6.
73
 
It is found in parallelism with rz in 1QH 11:9. Compare 1QH 4:27 and 12:12 with 1QH 2:13 and 7:27.
74
 
'The Pre-Christian Semitic Concept of "Mystery"', CBQ 20 (1958), p. 389, n. 84.
75 Der Lehrer der Gerechtigheit, Gottingen, 1963, pp. 171-3.
76
 
 
 
 
 
Holm-Neilsen approves Richardson's opinion (VT [1955, p. 167) that mlys means 'official spokesman', and by a reference to 1QpHab 8:16 underlines the quality of special insight suggested by the text. '"Interpreter", therefore, is not to be understood merely as the representative, but in the sense of the necessary link to make contact between the two parties' (Hodayot, 35, n. 29).
77 'Some remarks on Hodayot 39: 5-20', JBL 75 (1956), p. 273.
78
 
 
 
 
From Paul and the Dead Sea Scrolls edited by J. Murphy O'Connor and James H. Charlesworth Copyright 1990 by The Crossroads Publishing Company. pp. 132-58. Reprinted with permission.
Originally published in A. Descamps et al., Litterature et theologie pauliniennes (Recherches Bibliques V), Bruges, 1960, pp. 142-65.
79
 
 
 
 
 
 
The most interesting studies from our point of view are: D. Deden, 'Le "mystere" paulinien', Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 13 (1936), pp. 405-42; R.E. Brown, "The Pre'Christian Concept of Mystery', CBQ 20 (1958), pp. 417-43; id., "The Semitic Background of the New Testament Mysterion', Biblica 39 (1958), pp. 426-48; 40 (1959), pp. 70-87; B. Rigaux, 'Revelation des mysteres et perfection a Qumran et dans le Nouveau Testament', NTS 4 (1957-58), pp. 237-62.
80 Cf. 1QS 3:7-9; 5:5.
81
 
J. Dupont, Gnosis. La connaissance religieuse dans les Epitres de saint Paul, Bruges-Paris, 1949, pp. 199-200.
82 J. Dupont, op. cit., p. 200.
83
 
L. Cerfaux, La theologie de l'Eglise suivant saint Paul, Paris, 1948, p. 42.
84
 
 
 
 
 
 
1QH 5:25 'And they went among the sons of misfortune slandering the Mystery which thou hast sealed within me'; 1QH 8:10-11 'And he who causes the shoot of holiness to grow onto the planting of truth has remained hidden with none to consider him, and his mystery has been sealed with none to know it' (translations by Dupont-Sommer). In 1QH 5 the 'mystery' is paraphrased in v. 26 as 'the source of intelligence' and 'the secret of truth'.
85 R.E. Brown, art. cit., pp. 70-84
86
 
 
 
From Paul and the Dead Sea Scrolls edited by J. Murphy O'Connor and James H. Charlesworth Copyright 1990 by The Crossroads Publishing Company. pp. 85-114 (revised version of the study published in the Revue Biblique 2 (1960), pp.237-59). Reprinted with permission.
87
 
 
M. Burrows, More Light of the Dead Sea Scrolls, New York, 1958, pp. 119-20. Burrows refers to his first study, The Dead Sea Scrolls, New York, 1955, pp. 333-6.
88
 
 
 
 
 
Cf. H. Braun, 'Romer 7:7-25 und das Selbstverstandois des Qumran-Frommen', ZTK 56 (1959), pp. 1-18, and also a study which appeared at the same time as the first version of this paper, S. Schulz, "Zur Rechtfertigung aus Gnaden in Qumran und bei Paulus. Zugleich ein Beitrag zur Form-und Uberlieferungsgeschichte der Qumranteste', ZTK 56 (1959), pp. 155-85.
89
 
A. Dupont-Sommer, The Essene Writings from Qumran, trans. by G. Vermes, Cleveland - New York, 1962, p. 358.
90 Gert Jeremias, Der Lehrer der Gerechtigkeit, Gottingen, 1963, p. 351.
91
 
H. Bardtke, Die Handschriftenfunde vom Toten Meer, II; Die Sekte von Qumran, Berlin, 1958, pp. 141f.
92
 
 
Our translations of the Qumran texts follow those of Gert Jeremias, H. Bardtke, and J. Maier (Die Texte vom Toten Meer, Munchen Basel), 1960, vol. I, pp. 70-121.
93
 
Geza Vermes The Dead Sea Scrolls: Qumran in Perspective Fortress Press, Philadelphia 1977, p. 142-51/td>
94 Cf. especially H. Bardtke, op cit., pp. 25-82.
95
 
H. Bardtke, Das "Ich" des Meisters in denHodajoth von Qumran', pp. 103f.
96 Cf. A Oepke, 'Dikaiosune Theou bei Paulus', TLZ 78 (1953)
97 Cf. A. Oepke, op. cit.., p. 262.
98
 
 

 
  
Many scholars of course consider Damascus to be a symbolic expression for Qumran as a place of exile. But if Damascus was the refuge of people persecuted in Palestine, it would account not only for the drift to Qumran, but also for the unexplained appearance of Stephen's party in Damascus when they had been expelled from Jerusalem (Acts 8:1, 4; 9:2).
99
 
 
 
From Paul and the Dead Sea Scrolls edited by J. Murphy O'Connor and James H. Charlesworth, 1990 by the Crossroads Publishing Company. pp. 115-131. - First published in New Testament Studies 7 (1960-61) 334-46. Copyright permission courtesy of New Priory Press.
100
 
G. Schille, in his dissertation, Liturgisches Gut im Epheserbrief, Gottingen, 1953, was the first to point this out.
101
 
Rudolph, K. Gnosis: Nature and History of Gnosticism Harper and Row, San Francisco 1983 pp. 300-3
102
 
 
 
 
The linguistic parallels mentioned here are dealt with in an article by a pupil of mine, Reinhard Deichgraber, which is due to be published shortly. I am indebted to him for various references and illustrations which elarged the material I had gathered and which have been considered in this text.
103
 
 
 
 
The expression in Eph 4:19, 'the working of every sort of impurity in greed', has a parallel in 1QS 4:10 where, in an enumeration of the effects of the 'spirit of wickedness' upon men of wickedness (or of darkness), we read, 'The paths of darkness in the carrying out (or in the doing) of unclean things (b'bwdt tm'h)'.
104
 
 
When, according to Mark 6:18, John the Baptist comes before Herod and tells him '...it is not lawful for thee to have thy brother's wife', we have an instance of the Essene practice of 'correction'
105
 
 
 
 
 
 
From Paul and the Dead Sea Scrolls edited by J. Murphy O'Connor, O.P. and James H. Charlesworth; The Crossroads Publishing Company. pp. 159-178. - First published in Neutestamentliche Aufsatze Festschrift J. Schmid), ed. J. Blinzler et al., Regensburg, pp. 185-98. Reprinted with permission of New Priory Press, 1910 S. Ashland Avenue, Chicago, IL 60608-2903. An intellectual ministry of the Dominican Province of St. Albert the Great.
106
 
 
Cf. esp. R. B. Laurin, "The Question of Immortality in the Qumran Hodayot", JSS 3 (1958), pp. 144-55; M. Mansoor , The Thanksgiving Hymns, pp. 84-89 (further bibliography).
107
 
 
 
 
 
Cullmann, Oscar: "The Significance of the Qumran Texts for Research into the Beginnings of Christianity" in The Scrolls and the New Testament (ed. Krister Stendahl; Crossroads Publishing Company New York, 1992 pp. 22-30 copyright 1957 by Krister Stendahl. Reprinted from Journal of Biblical Literature 74 (1955), pp. 215-26.
108
 
 
Le probleme litteraire et historique du roman pseudo-clementin. Etude sur le rapport entre le gnosticisme et le judeo-christianisme [1930].
109
 
K. G. Kuhn, "Die in Palastina gefundenen hebraischen Texte und das Neue Testament," Zeitschr. f Theol. und Kirche 47 (1950), pp. 193 ff.
110 Ibid.
111
 
 
 
 
 
According to Philo, Quod omnis probus liber §75, the Essenes rejected the sacrifices of animals. According to a not very clear passage in Josephus, Ant. 18,1,5, the Essenes sent gifts to the Temple but did not participate themselves in Temple worship. The new texts published so far do not contain passages explicitly rejecting Temple worship. However, see 1 QS ix, 3 f.
112 Vol. V, pp. 59 f.
113 The Early Church (1956), pp. 183-92.
114 See H. Odeberg, The Fourth Gospel 1929.
115
 
 
Conze, Edward, "Buddhism and Gnosis," from On The Origins of Gnosticism: Colloquium of Messina, April 13-18, 1966 copyright 1970 E. J. Brill. the Netherlands. Used by permission.
116
 
 
For the convenience of my fellow Buddhologues I have documented the principal Gnostic tenets from... H. Jonas, The Gnostic Religion, 1963.
117
 
e.g. Buddhaghosa, Visuddhimagga, ed. H. C. Warren, 1950, xvii 112-9.
118
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
G. Tucci, Tibetan Painted Scrolls, 1, 1949, p. 211. The "selfluminous thought" which is at the centre of our being and has been overlaid by "adventitious defilements" (agantukehi upakkilesehi) becomes in the Mahayana "the embryo of the Tathagata" (for some documentation see E. Lamotte, L 'enseignement de Vimalakirti, 1962,52-6). To see through to one's own "Buddha-self' became the chief preoccupation of the Zen sect. The Manicheans likewise speak of "our original luminous nature" (Jonas, 123) "those around Basilides are in the habit of calling the passions 'appendages'" (Jonas, 159) and "in the Poimandres the ascent is described as a series of progressive subtractions which leaves the 'naked' true self' (Jonas, 166).
119 e.g. Conze, Buddhist Texts Through the Ages, n. 185.
120
 
For the Ratnagunasamcayagatha, see Suzuki Commemorative Volume, 1960, pp. 25-6.
121
 
 
Jonas, Hans, The Gnostic Religion: The Message of the Alien God and the Beginnings of Christianity 2nd edition, Boston, Beacon, 1963 p. 148
122 Ibid., p. 208.
123 E. LaMotte, Manjusri, in T'oungPao, XLVIII, 1960, pp. 5-8,40-48.
124 A. Wayman in JAOS 75, 1955, p. 258.
125
 
 
 
Le R. P. Festugiere, La revelation d'Hermes Trismegiste, I, 1950, pp. 76,78,319-24; H. Hoffmann, Die Religionen Tibets, 1956, pp. 45, 49, 54, 175; W. Y. Evans-Wentz, The Tibetan Book of the Dead, 1957, LIV-LV,73-7.
126
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Festugiere, 1:31.-ln both systems immense efforts were made to guard the transcendental character of the ultimate reality. Jonas, 251: "The true God ...is the Unknown, the totally Other, unknowable in terms of any worldly analogies". This might have been said of Nirvana. See also Jonas, 42, 288-9. Or Jonas, 142: "There is no trace in nature from which even his (the true God's) existence could be suspected". He is altogether "Beyond" (Jonas, 51), and petam is one of the keywords of Buddhism.
127 Jonas, pp. xiii, 109-10, 134-6, 191 n., 295-8.
128 Digha Nikaya I 18.
129
 
 
T. O. Ling, Buddhism and the Mythology of Evil, 1962 pp. 58-9, 86., Jonas pp. 211,224. Bultmann, Theologie des Neven Testaments, 1958 p. 173; For the MandeanRuha, see Jonas, 72.
130
 
 
 
 
 
For both Buddhists and Gnostics the world of divine freedom is strictly transcosmical. Nirvana is defined as the,place "where do water, earth and fire, -where does air no footing find, or where these four great elements cease to exist without leaving any trace of them". Digha Nikaya I 222, in F. L. Woodward, Some Sayings of the Buddha, 1925, p. 321.-About Gnostic Monism see Jonas, 60-1.
131 Iren. Haer I. 6. 2-3.
132 Conze, Buddhist Texts Through the Ages. 182-3.
133 Conze, "Buddhism and Gnosis," 652-664.